He date of diagnosis occurred between 2 and 27 yrs after commencement of illicit drug use. All subjects exhibited normal neuropsychological performance and the groups did not MedChemExpress 79831-76-8 significantly differ on the Logical Memory I and II, Verbal Fluency, and Digit Span forwards and backwards tests. However, subjects in the control group exhibited poorer performance on the Verbal Trails test (33610 s) than subjects in the stimulant (29613 s) and cannabis (2568 s) groups (P,0.046).Drug historyUse of alcohol and tobacco 25033180 was significantly different between groups (alcohol: F2,69 = 46.799; P,0.001, tobacco: F2,74 = 49.576; P,0.001; Table 1). Oltipraz lifetime use of alcohol (estimated total drinks) and tobacco (estimated total cigarettes) was greatest in the stimulant group and least in the control group (P,0.007). Table 2 shows the percentage of subjects within each group that had used various classes of illicit drugs. Ecstasy was the most commonly used stimulant followed by methamphetamine, cocaine, and recreational use of pharmaceutical stimulants. Polydrug use was common in the stimulant group and less common in the cannabis group. All subjects in the stimulant group had used cannabis and the majority of subjects had used hallucinogens (primarily lysergic acid diethylamide or `LSD’) and inhalants (primarily nitrous oxide). Illicit use of sedatives and opiates was uncommon and total lifetime use of these drugs was low (sedatives: 25670 occasions; opiates: 568 occasions). Table 3 shows single subject and group data for lifetime use of ecstasy, amphetamine-like stimulants, and cannabis in the stimulant group. Lifetime use of amphetamine-like stimulants was significantly greater than ecstasy (P = 0.004) and lifetime use of cannabis tended to be greater in the stimulant group than in the cannabis group (3056549 occasions; P = 0.09). The average duration of stimulant use was 8.166.8 yrs (range: 3 days-27 yrs) and the average duration of abstinence from stimulants was 2.063.6 yrs (range: 3 days-15 yrs). The average duration of abstinence from cannabis was 0.561.3 yrs (range: 1 day-6 yrs) and there was a tendency for a longer duration of cannabis abstinence in the cannabis group (1.863.8 yrs, range: 1 day-13 yrs; P = 0.07).Data analysisGroup data are presented as the mean 6 standard deviation (SD). Between-group comparison of subject characteristics (age, height, weight, years of education), neuropsychological parameters, and ultrasound parameters was made with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Non-parametric data were transformed to ranks and ANOVA on ranks were performed. Post-hoc discrimination between means was made with Student-Newman Keuls procedure. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used to compare cannabis parameters between the stimulant and cannabis groups. Paired Student’s t-test was used to compare lifetime use of ecstasy and amphetamine-like stimulants within the stimulant group. Spearman Rank Order correlation was used to investigate the relationship between area of substantia nigra echogenicity (largest side) and drug-use and neuropsychological parameters (SigmaPlot 11.0, Systat Software Inc, Chicago, USA). Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and Spearmann Rank Order correlation. Inter-rater reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 20, IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). Comparison of measurements obtained on machine 1 and 2 in the control group was made with unpaired Studen.He date of diagnosis occurred between 2 and 27 yrs after commencement of illicit drug use. All subjects exhibited normal neuropsychological performance and the groups did not significantly differ on the Logical Memory I and II, Verbal Fluency, and Digit Span forwards and backwards tests. However, subjects in the control group exhibited poorer performance on the Verbal Trails test (33610 s) than subjects in the stimulant (29613 s) and cannabis (2568 s) groups (P,0.046).Drug historyUse of alcohol and tobacco 25033180 was significantly different between groups (alcohol: F2,69 = 46.799; P,0.001, tobacco: F2,74 = 49.576; P,0.001; Table 1). Lifetime use of alcohol (estimated total drinks) and tobacco (estimated total cigarettes) was greatest in the stimulant group and least in the control group (P,0.007). Table 2 shows the percentage of subjects within each group that had used various classes of illicit drugs. Ecstasy was the most commonly used stimulant followed by methamphetamine, cocaine, and recreational use of pharmaceutical stimulants. Polydrug use was common in the stimulant group and less common in the cannabis group. All subjects in the stimulant group had used cannabis and the majority of subjects had used hallucinogens (primarily lysergic acid diethylamide or `LSD’) and inhalants (primarily nitrous oxide). Illicit use of sedatives and opiates was uncommon and total lifetime use of these drugs was low (sedatives: 25670 occasions; opiates: 568 occasions). Table 3 shows single subject and group data for lifetime use of ecstasy, amphetamine-like stimulants, and cannabis in the stimulant group. Lifetime use of amphetamine-like stimulants was significantly greater than ecstasy (P = 0.004) and lifetime use of cannabis tended to be greater in the stimulant group than in the cannabis group (3056549 occasions; P = 0.09). The average duration of stimulant use was 8.166.8 yrs (range: 3 days-27 yrs) and the average duration of abstinence from stimulants was 2.063.6 yrs (range: 3 days-15 yrs). The average duration of abstinence from cannabis was 0.561.3 yrs (range: 1 day-6 yrs) and there was a tendency for a longer duration of cannabis abstinence in the cannabis group (1.863.8 yrs, range: 1 day-13 yrs; P = 0.07).Data analysisGroup data are presented as the mean 6 standard deviation (SD). Between-group comparison of subject characteristics (age, height, weight, years of education), neuropsychological parameters, and ultrasound parameters was made with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Non-parametric data were transformed to ranks and ANOVA on ranks were performed. Post-hoc discrimination between means was made with Student-Newman Keuls procedure. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used to compare cannabis parameters between the stimulant and cannabis groups. Paired Student’s t-test was used to compare lifetime use of ecstasy and amphetamine-like stimulants within the stimulant group. Spearman Rank Order correlation was used to investigate the relationship between area of substantia nigra echogenicity (largest side) and drug-use and neuropsychological parameters (SigmaPlot 11.0, Systat Software Inc, Chicago, USA). Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and Spearmann Rank Order correlation. Inter-rater reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 20, IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). Comparison of measurements obtained on machine 1 and 2 in the control group was made with unpaired Studen.

He date of diagnosis occurred between 2 and 27 yrs after commencement of

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