In the phenomenon of electrical alternans, either measured as APD alternans or TWA [27]. APD restitution slopes .1 may amplify alternans and ultimately lead to VF through electrical wavebreak in animal studies [6,26]. Accordingly, flattening the APD restitution slope may dampen alternans and prevent VF [9]. Beside equivocal results of clinical studies on electrical restitution including our own study, criticism regarding the value of APD restitution slope as a predictor of VF has also been raised with regard to POR8 site initial experimental concept [11,12,13,28,29]. Other mechanisms for alternans besides restituPrognostic Value of APD RestitutionFigure 3. Survival curves. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for event-free survival of 74 patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy. (A) Based on maximum APD90 restitution slope S2,1 or 1, there was no difference in reaching the combined end-point of death and/or appropriate ICD (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) therapy (p 25331948 = 0.79). (B) Based on dichotomized ERP/APD90 ratios for S1, there was no difference in reaching the combined end-point of death and/or appropriate ICD therapy (p = 0.57). (C) Kaplan-Meier survival curves based on negative or positive programmed ventricular stimulation (PVS). Mortality and/or appropriate ICD therapy was higher in patients with positive PVS (p = 0.006). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054768.gPrognostic Value of APD Restitutiontion and other mechanisms for VF besides alternans may be suspected and must exist if interpreting the clear-cut results of the current study [29]. Indeed, it should be remembered that the shape and therefore the slope of a given APD restitution curve are governed by complex interactions of various ion channels and that the restitution curve is just a part of a complex picture [27]. Intracellular Ca2+ cycling has been found to play a critical role in the development of APD alternans and wavebreak, independently of APD restitution kinetics [30]. The electrical restitution curve can further be modulated by myocardial ischemia, drugs, electrolyte shifts, and autonomic tone [27]. Most important, it has been shown that during ischemia the restitution curve is depressed and its slope is flattened [31,32]. However, this ischemia-induced restitution slope flattening can hardly be regarded as physiologic or antiarrhythmic [27].sites that PVS is performed from is still concordant with the mapping studies and there is no indication that such differences may obscure potential prognostic relevance [13]. Finally, Selvaraj et al. showed in 18 patients that maximum ARI restitution slopes are steeper in patients with positive TWA or inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmias [11]. Despite finding a significant difference, considerable overlap between restitution slope values of high-risk and low-risk patients existed. Aside from the above mentioned inherent inaccuracies of the ARI method, the definition of risk was solely based on inducibility and TWA which may not reflect the true risk encountered during subsequent PHCCC site follow-up.Prognostic value of APD and ERP/APD ratio in humansTo our knowledge, there is no published data to relate ERP/ APD ratios or APD itself to prognosis. However, we did not find prognostic relevance of ERP/APD ratio or APD, nor a correlation to inducibility, despite successful prediction of prognosis by inducibility itself. In previous studies ERP/APD ratios have been investigated mainly to assess the actions of antiarrhythmic drugs [37]. Kolle.In the phenomenon of electrical alternans, either measured as APD alternans or TWA [27]. APD restitution slopes .1 may amplify alternans and ultimately lead to VF through electrical wavebreak in animal studies [6,26]. Accordingly, flattening the APD restitution slope may dampen alternans and prevent VF [9]. Beside equivocal results of clinical studies on electrical restitution including our own study, criticism regarding the value of APD restitution slope as a predictor of VF has also been raised with regard to initial experimental concept [11,12,13,28,29]. Other mechanisms for alternans besides restituPrognostic Value of APD RestitutionFigure 3. Survival curves. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for event-free survival of 74 patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy. (A) Based on maximum APD90 restitution slope S2,1 or 1, there was no difference in reaching the combined end-point of death and/or appropriate ICD (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) therapy (p 25331948 = 0.79). (B) Based on dichotomized ERP/APD90 ratios for S1, there was no difference in reaching the combined end-point of death and/or appropriate ICD therapy (p = 0.57). (C) Kaplan-Meier survival curves based on negative or positive programmed ventricular stimulation (PVS). Mortality and/or appropriate ICD therapy was higher in patients with positive PVS (p = 0.006). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054768.gPrognostic Value of APD Restitutiontion and other mechanisms for VF besides alternans may be suspected and must exist if interpreting the clear-cut results of the current study [29]. Indeed, it should be remembered that the shape and therefore the slope of a given APD restitution curve are governed by complex interactions of various ion channels and that the restitution curve is just a part of a complex picture [27]. Intracellular Ca2+ cycling has been found to play a critical role in the development of APD alternans and wavebreak, independently of APD restitution kinetics [30]. The electrical restitution curve can further be modulated by myocardial ischemia, drugs, electrolyte shifts, and autonomic tone [27]. Most important, it has been shown that during ischemia the restitution curve is depressed and its slope is flattened [31,32]. However, this ischemia-induced restitution slope flattening can hardly be regarded as physiologic or antiarrhythmic [27].sites that PVS is performed from is still concordant with the mapping studies and there is no indication that such differences may obscure potential prognostic relevance [13]. Finally, Selvaraj et al. showed in 18 patients that maximum ARI restitution slopes are steeper in patients with positive TWA or inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmias [11]. Despite finding a significant difference, considerable overlap between restitution slope values of high-risk and low-risk patients existed. Aside from the above mentioned inherent inaccuracies of the ARI method, the definition of risk was solely based on inducibility and TWA which may not reflect the true risk encountered during subsequent follow-up.Prognostic value of APD and ERP/APD ratio in humansTo our knowledge, there is no published data to relate ERP/ APD ratios or APD itself to prognosis. However, we did not find prognostic relevance of ERP/APD ratio or APD, nor a correlation to inducibility, despite successful prediction of prognosis by inducibility itself. In previous studies ERP/APD ratios have been investigated mainly to assess the actions of antiarrhythmic drugs [37]. Kolle.

In the phenomenon of electrical alternans, either measured as APD alternans

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