Duced by TNBS administration. Of interest, while CpG effectively protected FXR+/+ mice against development of colitis, it had no PHCCC effect on severity of TNBS colitis in FXR2/2 mice (Figure 5; n = 6; p,0.05), suggesting that FXR is a non-dispensable component of the protective mechanism activated by TLR9 in this model.TLR9 selectively targets FXR and its target gene Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP)To further investigate on the specificity of the effects exerted by TLR9 on FXR gene expression we applied a PCR array to analyze the relative mRNA expression of several nuclear receptors on CD14 derived PBMC treated with the TLR9 agonist CpG. As illustrated in Figure 1C, exposure of human monocytes to the TLR9 agonist CpG resulted in a selective induction of FXR mRNA and its target gene SHP, while expression of other nuclear receptors was unchanged (Figure 1 C; n = 3, p,0.05). The specificity of this interaction was further confirmed by ex vivo CpG stimulation of spleen-derived monocytes isolated from TLR9+/+ and TLR92/2 mice. Results of Real-Time PCR confirmed that CpG effectively induced FXR mRNA expression in TLR9+/+ spleen derived monocytes but not in TLR92/2 cells (Figure 1 D; n = 4;p,0.05).Analysis of human and mouse FXR promoters reveals the existence of a conserved IRF-7 responsive element (IRF-7RE)Signaling to TLR9-MyD88 activation requires the recruitment of the transcription factor IRF7 (Figure S1), which, in turn, binds to responsive elements 18325633 (RE) in the promoter of target genes enabling the transcription of type-I interferons [22]. We have therefore searched for putative IRF-7 responsive elements (IRF7REs) in the promoter of FXR. The analysis of 5’flanking region of both human and mouse FXR gene carried out with the on-line software TFsearch revealed the presence of a conserved IRF7-RE located at 2602 base pairs in the human FXR gene and at 2787 base pairs in the murine FXR gene, with respect to the transcriptional start site ATG (Figure 6A). For practical reasons, i.e. ease of transfection, rapid replication and achievement of high number of cells to perform molecular experiments such asSeverity of colitis induced by TNBS is modulated by expression of TLRs and FXRSince FXR is a robust mediator of innate host defense in the intestine [3] and colon expression of FXR mRNA is 10457188 reduced in IBDs [19] we have next investigated the colonic expression ofFXR Is a Novel TLR-9 Target GeneFigure 1. FXR gene expression is regulated by TLR agonists. (A ) Quantitative MedChemExpress 3PO RT-PCR of FXR and TNFa genes was carried out on RNA purified from CD14 positive cells derived PBMC stimulated ex vivo with TLRs agonists as described in the materials and methods. Data are mean 6 SE of 3 experiments carried out in triplicate. *P,0.05 versus not treated cells. (C) Specificity of CpG effect. PCR array analysis showing the relative mRNA expression of various nuclear receptors on CD14+ derived PBMC stimulated ex vivo with TLR9 agonist CpG. (D) Quantitative RT-PCR of FXR was carried out on RNA purified from spleen-derived monocytes isolated from TLR9+/+ and TLR92/2 mice stimulated ex vivo with CpG. Data are mean of 6 SE of 4 mice. *P,0.05 versus TLR9+/+ not treated cells. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054472.gChromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), we have decided to assess the functionality of this IRF7RE sequence in Raw264.7 cells. As shown in Figure 6B, C, D, exposure of Raw264.7 cells to CpG resulted in a ,2 folds induction of FX.Duced by TNBS administration. Of interest, while CpG effectively protected FXR+/+ mice against development of colitis, it had no effect on severity of TNBS colitis in FXR2/2 mice (Figure 5; n = 6; p,0.05), suggesting that FXR is a non-dispensable component of the protective mechanism activated by TLR9 in this model.TLR9 selectively targets FXR and its target gene Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP)To further investigate on the specificity of the effects exerted by TLR9 on FXR gene expression we applied a PCR array to analyze the relative mRNA expression of several nuclear receptors on CD14 derived PBMC treated with the TLR9 agonist CpG. As illustrated in Figure 1C, exposure of human monocytes to the TLR9 agonist CpG resulted in a selective induction of FXR mRNA and its target gene SHP, while expression of other nuclear receptors was unchanged (Figure 1 C; n = 3, p,0.05). The specificity of this interaction was further confirmed by ex vivo CpG stimulation of spleen-derived monocytes isolated from TLR9+/+ and TLR92/2 mice. Results of Real-Time PCR confirmed that CpG effectively induced FXR mRNA expression in TLR9+/+ spleen derived monocytes but not in TLR92/2 cells (Figure 1 D; n = 4;p,0.05).Analysis of human and mouse FXR promoters reveals the existence of a conserved IRF-7 responsive element (IRF-7RE)Signaling to TLR9-MyD88 activation requires the recruitment of the transcription factor IRF7 (Figure S1), which, in turn, binds to responsive elements 18325633 (RE) in the promoter of target genes enabling the transcription of type-I interferons [22]. We have therefore searched for putative IRF-7 responsive elements (IRF7REs) in the promoter of FXR. The analysis of 5’flanking region of both human and mouse FXR gene carried out with the on-line software TFsearch revealed the presence of a conserved IRF7-RE located at 2602 base pairs in the human FXR gene and at 2787 base pairs in the murine FXR gene, with respect to the transcriptional start site ATG (Figure 6A). For practical reasons, i.e. ease of transfection, rapid replication and achievement of high number of cells to perform molecular experiments such asSeverity of colitis induced by TNBS is modulated by expression of TLRs and FXRSince FXR is a robust mediator of innate host defense in the intestine [3] and colon expression of FXR mRNA is 10457188 reduced in IBDs [19] we have next investigated the colonic expression ofFXR Is a Novel TLR-9 Target GeneFigure 1. FXR gene expression is regulated by TLR agonists. (A ) Quantitative RT-PCR of FXR and TNFa genes was carried out on RNA purified from CD14 positive cells derived PBMC stimulated ex vivo with TLRs agonists as described in the materials and methods. Data are mean 6 SE of 3 experiments carried out in triplicate. *P,0.05 versus not treated cells. (C) Specificity of CpG effect. PCR array analysis showing the relative mRNA expression of various nuclear receptors on CD14+ derived PBMC stimulated ex vivo with TLR9 agonist CpG. (D) Quantitative RT-PCR of FXR was carried out on RNA purified from spleen-derived monocytes isolated from TLR9+/+ and TLR92/2 mice stimulated ex vivo with CpG. Data are mean of 6 SE of 4 mice. *P,0.05 versus TLR9+/+ not treated cells. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054472.gChromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), we have decided to assess the functionality of this IRF7RE sequence in Raw264.7 cells. As shown in Figure 6B, C, D, exposure of Raw264.7 cells to CpG resulted in a ,2 folds induction of FX.

Duced by TNBS administration. Of interest, while CpG effectively protected FXR

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