E tail of the 731-nucleotide transcript [17]. In this report we describe an unusual partial conservation of this splicing reaction seen across diverse dinoflagellates that provides insight into the novelty of this splicing mechanism.KVcox3H7rev and KVcox3H7for (AATCTTATGGTTATTTATCTTTC); Symbiodinium sp. and A. catenella cox3H7: SspAcatcox3H7rev and SspAcatcox3H7for (AATTTCTATTGGCATTTTCTTG) or Kvcox3H7for (for A. catenella only); K. veneficum, Symbiodinium sp. cox3H1-6: KVcox3H1-6rev 1655472 and KVcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCATCTTGTCGTTGG); A. catenella coxH1-6: Acatcox3H1-6rev and KVcox3H1-6for; A. carterae cox3H1-6: Acarcox3H1-6rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCACCTTATTGTTGG); A. carterae cox3H7: Acarcox3H7rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTATTGGCATTTTGTTGAGG). As primers to cox3 precursors also bound to full-length cox3 transcripts, gels of cRT-PCR products contained larger bands corresponding to head-to-tail ligated full-length cox3 molecules, with sequence spanning the splice site. For A. catenella and A. carterae these larger bands were cloned, whereas cDNAs for K. veneficum cox3 (strain CCMP415) were available from a previously constructed cDNA library [20]. PCR products were ligated into the pGEM T-easy vector (Promega), cloned, and fully sequenced.Northern Blot AnalysisHybridization probe templates for K. veneficum cox3H1-6 and cox3H7 were generated using PCR from a full-length cDNA cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector (cox3H1-6 primers: KvH16ProbeF (AGTATTCATCAGGAAGTTGC) and KvH1-6ProbeR (TTAGAAGAAGAAGACCAACGAC); cox3H7 primers: KvH7ProbeF (TTGGTTTTTAAATTTAAGAG) and KvH7ProbeR (ATAACGAGTAAAGGAATAGAAAG). PCR fragments were purified from gels and random hexamer-based probes were constructed using the Prime-a-gene labeling system (Promega) and 32 P-labeled dATP, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA (5mg per lane) was separated on a 4 polyacrylamide/ urea gel (per 5 mL of gel solution: 0.5 mL 10X Tris/Borate/ EDTA buffer, 3.5 mL 10M urea, 0.5 mL 40 19:1 Acrylamide/ Bis solution, 50 mL 10 ammonium persulphate, 450 mL water, 5 mL TEMED) at 150V in 1X TBE running MedChemExpress Methionine enkephalin buffer (MiniProteanH 3 Cell, Biorad). Separated RNA was transferred to Hybond N+ membrane (GE Gracillin site Healthcare) via electroblotting with 0.5X TBE transfer buffer, at 80 volts for 1 hour at 4uC, (Mini Trans-BlotH Electrophoretic Transfer Cell, Biorad), and RNA was cross-linked by UV irradiation. Membrane blocking was performed with modified Churches buffer (51 g Na2HPO4.2H20, 16.8 g anhydrous NaH2PO4, 4 ml of 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 70 g SDS per liter) for 2 hours at 65uC. Probe hybridization was performed overnight at 65uC in modified Churches buffer. Following hybridization, membranes were washed twice for 5 min each in 46SSC +0.5 SDS then with the following series: 26SCC +0.5 SDS; 46SSC +0.5 SDS; 26SCC +0.5 SDS; 46SSC +0.5 SDS. All wash steps were carried out for 1 h at 65uC. Membranes were visualized using Xray film, (exposure time ,1 hour).Methods Cell Culture, Nucleic acid Extraction, cRT-PCRKarlodinium veneficum (strain CCMP415), Alexandrium catenella (strain ACPP01), Amphidinium carterae (strain CCMP121) and Symbiodinium sp. (strain Tc 13) were cultured in Guilard’s f2 media at 16uC (K. veneficum and A. carterae) or 25uC (Symbiodinium sp. and A. catenella) on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. Cells were harvested by centrifugation (10 min, 2,600 g), and total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen). For each species, ,750 ng of otherwise untreated total RNA.E tail of the 731-nucleotide transcript [17]. In this report we describe an unusual partial conservation of this splicing reaction seen across diverse dinoflagellates that provides insight into the novelty of this splicing mechanism.KVcox3H7rev and KVcox3H7for (AATCTTATGGTTATTTATCTTTC); Symbiodinium sp. and A. catenella cox3H7: SspAcatcox3H7rev and SspAcatcox3H7for (AATTTCTATTGGCATTTTCTTG) or Kvcox3H7for (for A. catenella only); K. veneficum, Symbiodinium sp. cox3H1-6: KVcox3H1-6rev 1655472 and KVcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCATCTTGTCGTTGG); A. catenella coxH1-6: Acatcox3H1-6rev and KVcox3H1-6for; A. carterae cox3H1-6: Acarcox3H1-6rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCACCTTATTGTTGG); A. carterae cox3H7: Acarcox3H7rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTATTGGCATTTTGTTGAGG). As primers to cox3 precursors also bound to full-length cox3 transcripts, gels of cRT-PCR products contained larger bands corresponding to head-to-tail ligated full-length cox3 molecules, with sequence spanning the splice site. For A. catenella and A. carterae these larger bands were cloned, whereas cDNAs for K. veneficum cox3 (strain CCMP415) were available from a previously constructed cDNA library [20]. PCR products were ligated into the pGEM T-easy vector (Promega), cloned, and fully sequenced.Northern Blot AnalysisHybridization probe templates for K. veneficum cox3H1-6 and cox3H7 were generated using PCR from a full-length cDNA cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector (cox3H1-6 primers: KvH16ProbeF (AGTATTCATCAGGAAGTTGC) and KvH1-6ProbeR (TTAGAAGAAGAAGACCAACGAC); cox3H7 primers: KvH7ProbeF (TTGGTTTTTAAATTTAAGAG) and KvH7ProbeR (ATAACGAGTAAAGGAATAGAAAG). PCR fragments were purified from gels and random hexamer-based probes were constructed using the Prime-a-gene labeling system (Promega) and 32 P-labeled dATP, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA (5mg per lane) was separated on a 4 polyacrylamide/ urea gel (per 5 mL of gel solution: 0.5 mL 10X Tris/Borate/ EDTA buffer, 3.5 mL 10M urea, 0.5 mL 40 19:1 Acrylamide/ Bis solution, 50 mL 10 ammonium persulphate, 450 mL water, 5 mL TEMED) at 150V in 1X TBE running buffer (MiniProteanH 3 Cell, Biorad). Separated RNA was transferred to Hybond N+ membrane (GE Healthcare) via electroblotting with 0.5X TBE transfer buffer, at 80 volts for 1 hour at 4uC, (Mini Trans-BlotH Electrophoretic Transfer Cell, Biorad), and RNA was cross-linked by UV irradiation. Membrane blocking was performed with modified Churches buffer (51 g Na2HPO4.2H20, 16.8 g anhydrous NaH2PO4, 4 ml of 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 70 g SDS per liter) for 2 hours at 65uC. Probe hybridization was performed overnight at 65uC in modified Churches buffer. Following hybridization, membranes were washed twice for 5 min each in 46SSC +0.5 SDS then with the following series: 26SCC +0.5 SDS; 46SSC +0.5 SDS; 26SCC +0.5 SDS; 46SSC +0.5 SDS. All wash steps were carried out for 1 h at 65uC. Membranes were visualized using Xray film, (exposure time ,1 hour).Methods Cell Culture, Nucleic acid Extraction, cRT-PCRKarlodinium veneficum (strain CCMP415), Alexandrium catenella (strain ACPP01), Amphidinium carterae (strain CCMP121) and Symbiodinium sp. (strain Tc 13) were cultured in Guilard’s f2 media at 16uC (K. veneficum and A. carterae) or 25uC (Symbiodinium sp. and A. catenella) on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. Cells were harvested by centrifugation (10 min, 2,600 g), and total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen). For each species, ,750 ng of otherwise untreated total RNA.

E tail of the 731-nucleotide transcript [17]. In this report we describe

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