Iation. Wt Met-Enkephalin web NFATC1 and HAND2 synergistically activate DEGS1 promoter. This synergy was abrogated in all NFATC1 mutants. Significance (p,0.05) was assessed using the one-way Anova test. (* p,0.01, ** p,0.05) B- Wt NFATC1 or NFATC1 Mutants (P66L, I701L, P66L/I701L) were transfected with/without PPP3CA and with/ without GATA5 to assess their combinatorial regulation of the DEGS1 promoter in HeLa cells. Six hours post transfection, media was changed and cells were harvested for luciferase assay after 36 hours. Relative luciferase activities are represented as fold activation. The data are the mean of three independent experiments done in duplicates +/2 standard deviation. Wt NFATC1 cotransfected with GATA5 caused a synergistic activation of 35 fold, while transfection of Wt NFATC1 with PPP3CA and GATA5 caused even a stronger synergy reaching 68 fold. The synergestic activation was maintained in all mutants except for P66L/I701L double mutant where the synergy was totally lost. Significance (p,0.05) was assessed using the oneway Anova test. (* p,0.01, ** p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049532.gpoint to a dose-dependent genotype-phenotype correlation whereby haploinsufficiency is by itself diseases-causing [31,35,36,37,38]. Our results go along with what is published in that regard by adding the NFATC1 gene to the list of mutated genes Madecassoside site linked to congenital heart disease in humans, particularly valve diseases.shift experiments whereby the DNA binding activity was significantly reduced by 30?0 although the same amount of overepressed proteins was used for both wild type and mutant NFATC1. On the other hand, the structure function analysis done on the most expressed isoform, Isoform A, does also mask a possible effect the mutation I701L could have on the sumolation process on isoform C which occurs on K702 [44].NFATC1 haploinsufficiency and Tricupid AtresiaWe have shown two heterozygous mutations on one allele of the NFATC1 gene in one patient with tricuspid atresia out of 19. The fact that the double mutation is also found in the father who has a normal phenotype argues for incomplete penetrance, a phenomenon seen in other genes encoding transcription factors involved in cardiac and non-cardiac congenital diseases. One such example is the Arg25Cys mutation, which was shown to abrogate the transcriptional activity of the NKX2-5 protein and yet has reduced penetrance depending on the population study groups [39,40]. In mice, the Holt-Oram syndrome recreated with the heterozygous Tbx5 model is the best example of a dosage dependent phenotype-genotype correlation. In fact, null mice for both Tbx5 alleles showed a very severe cardiac phenotype leading to early embryonic lethality, while mice carrying only one Tbx5 allele display a spectrum of phenotypes recapitulating the ones observed in humans [41]. Unfortunately, in our case the indexedpatient was evaluated for the first time at the age of 16 years at our center when he presented with severe cyanosis and complications of his condition which was not well taken care of at earlier stages and had led to the his death few days after his admission to the hospital. Exon by exon sequencing of different genes encoding transcription factors, including GATA4,5,6, TBX5,20, NKX2-5, PITX2, and NFATC1 was carried out on the whole family and none except NFATC1 showed polymorphisms that could be disease causing. We cannot exclude however, that 1662274 other not tested gene(s) could also be mutated and carried on the m.Iation. Wt NFATC1 and HAND2 synergistically activate DEGS1 promoter. This synergy was abrogated in all NFATC1 mutants. Significance (p,0.05) was assessed using the one-way Anova test. (* p,0.01, ** p,0.05) B- Wt NFATC1 or NFATC1 Mutants (P66L, I701L, P66L/I701L) were transfected with/without PPP3CA and with/ without GATA5 to assess their combinatorial regulation of the DEGS1 promoter in HeLa cells. Six hours post transfection, media was changed and cells were harvested for luciferase assay after 36 hours. Relative luciferase activities are represented as fold activation. The data are the mean of three independent experiments done in duplicates +/2 standard deviation. Wt NFATC1 cotransfected with GATA5 caused a synergistic activation of 35 fold, while transfection of Wt NFATC1 with PPP3CA and GATA5 caused even a stronger synergy reaching 68 fold. The synergestic activation was maintained in all mutants except for P66L/I701L double mutant where the synergy was totally lost. Significance (p,0.05) was assessed using the oneway Anova test. (* p,0.01, ** p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049532.gpoint to a dose-dependent genotype-phenotype correlation whereby haploinsufficiency is by itself diseases-causing [31,35,36,37,38]. Our results go along with what is published in that regard by adding the NFATC1 gene to the list of mutated genes linked to congenital heart disease in humans, particularly valve diseases.shift experiments whereby the DNA binding activity was significantly reduced by 30?0 although the same amount of overepressed proteins was used for both wild type and mutant NFATC1. On the other hand, the structure function analysis done on the most expressed isoform, Isoform A, does also mask a possible effect the mutation I701L could have on the sumolation process on isoform C which occurs on K702 [44].NFATC1 haploinsufficiency and Tricupid AtresiaWe have shown two heterozygous mutations on one allele of the NFATC1 gene in one patient with tricuspid atresia out of 19. The fact that the double mutation is also found in the father who has a normal phenotype argues for incomplete penetrance, a phenomenon seen in other genes encoding transcription factors involved in cardiac and non-cardiac congenital diseases. One such example is the Arg25Cys mutation, which was shown to abrogate the transcriptional activity of the NKX2-5 protein and yet has reduced penetrance depending on the population study groups [39,40]. In mice, the Holt-Oram syndrome recreated with the heterozygous Tbx5 model is the best example of a dosage dependent phenotype-genotype correlation. In fact, null mice for both Tbx5 alleles showed a very severe cardiac phenotype leading to early embryonic lethality, while mice carrying only one Tbx5 allele display a spectrum of phenotypes recapitulating the ones observed in humans [41]. Unfortunately, in our case the indexedpatient was evaluated for the first time at the age of 16 years at our center when he presented with severe cyanosis and complications of his condition which was not well taken care of at earlier stages and had led to the his death few days after his admission to the hospital. Exon by exon sequencing of different genes encoding transcription factors, including GATA4,5,6, TBX5,20, NKX2-5, PITX2, and NFATC1 was carried out on the whole family and none except NFATC1 showed polymorphisms that could be disease causing. We cannot exclude however, that 1662274 other not tested gene(s) could also be mutated and carried on the m.

Iation. Wt NFATC1 and HAND2 synergistically activate DEGS1 promoter. This synergy

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.