Nly was administered by oral gavage according to the POR-8 site timetable dictated by the experiment. For infection studies, mice were administered 105 shedding dose 50 (SD50) of EW in a volume of 100 mL by oral gavage, or 100 mL of intestinal homogenate prepared from uninfected neonatal mice. Fecal samples were collected daily. Animals were euthanized at the conclusion of the experiments to harvest intestinal tissue for RNA isolation, flow cytometry, and [DTrp6]-LH-RH site histology.HistologySmall intestine was dissected and separated into duodenum, jejunem and ileum. The lumen of each section was rinsed with PBS, and then infused with OCT. The sections were coiled into a cryomold with the proximal end at the center, covered with OCT and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Five mm thick sections were mounted on Superfrost slides (Fisher), and fixed with 11967625 75 acetone/25 ethanol for five minutes, air dried and then stained with antibodies to B220 (A488), CD11c (PE), and CD3e (PE), all from eBiosciences. Images were captured on a Nikon Eclipse iCytokine ArraysFollowing oral administration of GRA, one cm sections of either duodenum or ileum were dissected and stored in RNAlaterGRA Induces ILF Formationfluorescent microscope. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was measured with NIH Image/ImageJ software (http://rsb.info.nih. gov/nih-image/about.html).Table 1. GRA-induced changes in cytokine expression in intestinal tissue.Results GRA Induces Transcription of a Specific Pattern of Genes Encoding Chemokine Receptors and Corresponding Ligands in the Small IntestineThe ability of orally delivered GRA to modulate immune system activity at the gut mucosa initially was analyzed by measuring cytokine gene expression in small intestinal tissue. Mice were administered GRA or vehicle alone by oral gavage. Ten hours post-treatment, total RNA was extracted from sections of the gut taken ,one cm from the gastroduodenal junction, or the ileum, and changes in cytokine gene transcription were measured by 1676428 RT-qPCR using a Mouse Inflammatory Cytokine array. In the initial experiment, ten genes were up-regulated in GRA-treated mice .2-fold over vehicle-treated controls. These genes, listed in Table 1, plus one additional gene of interest, CCL21b, were chosen to design custom arrays. The same pattern of up-regulated chemokine and chemokine receptor transcripts was observed in multiple repetitions of the experiment, and was similar regardless of whether RNA was extracted from duodenal or ileal tissue. GRA-induced transcripts included chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21b, and receptors CCR6 and CCR9. Increased transcription of genes encoding the ligands for CCR6 and CCR9 (CCL20 and CCL25, respectively) did not meet the established cut-off of .2-fold change, although CCL20 was moderately up-regulated in the original full array (1.6 fold, data not shown). Lymphotoxin A (Lta) and lymphotoxin B (Ltb) also were up-regulated in GRA-treated animals. IFN-c and IL-10 were moderately increased in the first experiment, but induction was not consistent between multiple experiments. Some variability between mice in terms of the presence or absence of a response was observed. However, the pattern was reproducible with respect to both the transcripts that were induced and the relative magnitude of expression in all mice that responded, and these genes never were up-regulated in vehicle-treated controls. Expression of genes encoding these chemokine receptor.Nly was administered by oral gavage according to the timetable dictated by the experiment. For infection studies, mice were administered 105 shedding dose 50 (SD50) of EW in a volume of 100 mL by oral gavage, or 100 mL of intestinal homogenate prepared from uninfected neonatal mice. Fecal samples were collected daily. Animals were euthanized at the conclusion of the experiments to harvest intestinal tissue for RNA isolation, flow cytometry, and histology.HistologySmall intestine was dissected and separated into duodenum, jejunem and ileum. The lumen of each section was rinsed with PBS, and then infused with OCT. The sections were coiled into a cryomold with the proximal end at the center, covered with OCT and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Five mm thick sections were mounted on Superfrost slides (Fisher), and fixed with 11967625 75 acetone/25 ethanol for five minutes, air dried and then stained with antibodies to B220 (A488), CD11c (PE), and CD3e (PE), all from eBiosciences. Images were captured on a Nikon Eclipse iCytokine ArraysFollowing oral administration of GRA, one cm sections of either duodenum or ileum were dissected and stored in RNAlaterGRA Induces ILF Formationfluorescent microscope. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was measured with NIH Image/ImageJ software (http://rsb.info.nih. gov/nih-image/about.html).Table 1. GRA-induced changes in cytokine expression in intestinal tissue.Results GRA Induces Transcription of a Specific Pattern of Genes Encoding Chemokine Receptors and Corresponding Ligands in the Small IntestineThe ability of orally delivered GRA to modulate immune system activity at the gut mucosa initially was analyzed by measuring cytokine gene expression in small intestinal tissue. Mice were administered GRA or vehicle alone by oral gavage. Ten hours post-treatment, total RNA was extracted from sections of the gut taken ,one cm from the gastroduodenal junction, or the ileum, and changes in cytokine gene transcription were measured by 1676428 RT-qPCR using a Mouse Inflammatory Cytokine array. In the initial experiment, ten genes were up-regulated in GRA-treated mice .2-fold over vehicle-treated controls. These genes, listed in Table 1, plus one additional gene of interest, CCL21b, were chosen to design custom arrays. The same pattern of up-regulated chemokine and chemokine receptor transcripts was observed in multiple repetitions of the experiment, and was similar regardless of whether RNA was extracted from duodenal or ileal tissue. GRA-induced transcripts included chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21b, and receptors CCR6 and CCR9. Increased transcription of genes encoding the ligands for CCR6 and CCR9 (CCL20 and CCL25, respectively) did not meet the established cut-off of .2-fold change, although CCL20 was moderately up-regulated in the original full array (1.6 fold, data not shown). Lymphotoxin A (Lta) and lymphotoxin B (Ltb) also were up-regulated in GRA-treated animals. IFN-c and IL-10 were moderately increased in the first experiment, but induction was not consistent between multiple experiments. Some variability between mice in terms of the presence or absence of a response was observed. However, the pattern was reproducible with respect to both the transcripts that were induced and the relative magnitude of expression in all mice that responded, and these genes never were up-regulated in vehicle-treated controls. Expression of genes encoding these chemokine receptor.

Nly was administered by oral gavage according to the timetable dictated

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