Cts of 1,25(OH)2D3 on adipogenic marker expression. Human preadipocytes were differentiated in the absence or presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1028 M, added continuously throughout). Expression levels of adipogenic markers [C/EBPb (A), C/EBPa (B), PPARc (C), and LPL (D)] were measured before (09) and at indicated time points during differentiation. Data are presented as of vehicle control after differentiation (d10?2; d10+) in each experiment. *, p,0.05, vehicle control vs. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, n = 4. E. Representative FABP4 and VDR blots from 3 independent experiments are presented. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052171.gSince 25(OH)D3 also increased CYP24A1 expression, the effects of 25(OH)D3 on adipogenesis were tested. 25(OH)D3 increased differentiation of human preadipocytes (Fig. 3). Interestingly, 1028 M 25(OH)D3 tended to be less effective than 1029 M at increasing LPL mRNA and FABP4 PHCCC site protein levels. Of note, we could not test higher concentrations of 25(OH)D3 ( 1027 M) as they were toxic to human preadipocytes, killing cells within 24 h of treatment. 25(OH)D3 (1028 M) significantly increased triglyceride accumulation by 72616 compared to the vehicle control (Fig. 3D).1,25(OH)2D3 Primarily Regulates the Late Stage of buy Triptorelin AdipogenesisTo determine whether 1,25(OH)2D3 affects early or late events in adipogenesis, we next assessed the time course effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on mRNA levels of key transcription factors and adipocyte genes during differentiation [10,11]. 1,25(OH)2D3 did not affect 1379592 mRNA levels of C/EBPb, an early adipogenic transcription factor [16,17] (Fig. 4A). However, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased C/EBPa by ,60 above the vehicle control on day 1 (Fig. 4B). Intriguingly, while C/EBPa expression declined after day 3 in controls, higher expression was maintained throughout differentiation in the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Thus, between day 6?0 of differentiation C/EBPa expression levels were 2 to 3-fold higher in the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Similar results were observed for PPARc mRNA, although the differencewas not statistically significant (Fig. 4C). 1,25(OH)2D3 increased LPL mRNA (a late marker of adipogenesis) only during the later period of differentiation (day 6+) (Fig. 4D). Similar data was obtained for FABP4 protein (Fig. 4E) and adiponectin mRNA levels (not shown), other late markers of adipogenesis. Although VDR mRNA levels remained unchanged throughout differentiation (not shown), VDR protein levels are decreased after differentiation (Fig. 4E). The rate of decline in VDR protein during differentiation was consistently slower when 1,25(OH)2D3 was added. To test whether 1,25(OH)2D3 affected the induction or maturation phase of adipogenesis, 1,25(OH)2D3 (1028 M) was added continuously from the start of differentiation (09-end), only during the initial 3d-induction period (09 3), or between day 3 to day 14 (d3-end). When added during the induction period (09?d), 1,25(OH)2D3 did not significantly affect the expression of any differentiation markers (Fig. 5). On the other hand, addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 during the maturation period (d3-end) significantly increased differentiation to the same extent as the continuous treatment (09-end).The Pro-adipogenic Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are Greater in the Absence of Thiazolidinediones (TZD)Previous studies indicate that 18325633 TZD partially ameliorate the inhibitory effects of vitamin D on adipogenesis [4,18]. Since a TZD was one of regular components in our differentiation cocktail andVita.Cts of 1,25(OH)2D3 on adipogenic marker expression. Human preadipocytes were differentiated in the absence or presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1028 M, added continuously throughout). Expression levels of adipogenic markers [C/EBPb (A), C/EBPa (B), PPARc (C), and LPL (D)] were measured before (09) and at indicated time points during differentiation. Data are presented as of vehicle control after differentiation (d10?2; d10+) in each experiment. *, p,0.05, vehicle control vs. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, n = 4. E. Representative FABP4 and VDR blots from 3 independent experiments are presented. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052171.gSince 25(OH)D3 also increased CYP24A1 expression, the effects of 25(OH)D3 on adipogenesis were tested. 25(OH)D3 increased differentiation of human preadipocytes (Fig. 3). Interestingly, 1028 M 25(OH)D3 tended to be less effective than 1029 M at increasing LPL mRNA and FABP4 protein levels. Of note, we could not test higher concentrations of 25(OH)D3 ( 1027 M) as they were toxic to human preadipocytes, killing cells within 24 h of treatment. 25(OH)D3 (1028 M) significantly increased triglyceride accumulation by 72616 compared to the vehicle control (Fig. 3D).1,25(OH)2D3 Primarily Regulates the Late Stage of AdipogenesisTo determine whether 1,25(OH)2D3 affects early or late events in adipogenesis, we next assessed the time course effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on mRNA levels of key transcription factors and adipocyte genes during differentiation [10,11]. 1,25(OH)2D3 did not affect 1379592 mRNA levels of C/EBPb, an early adipogenic transcription factor [16,17] (Fig. 4A). However, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased C/EBPa by ,60 above the vehicle control on day 1 (Fig. 4B). Intriguingly, while C/EBPa expression declined after day 3 in controls, higher expression was maintained throughout differentiation in the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Thus, between day 6?0 of differentiation C/EBPa expression levels were 2 to 3-fold higher in the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Similar results were observed for PPARc mRNA, although the differencewas not statistically significant (Fig. 4C). 1,25(OH)2D3 increased LPL mRNA (a late marker of adipogenesis) only during the later period of differentiation (day 6+) (Fig. 4D). Similar data was obtained for FABP4 protein (Fig. 4E) and adiponectin mRNA levels (not shown), other late markers of adipogenesis. Although VDR mRNA levels remained unchanged throughout differentiation (not shown), VDR protein levels are decreased after differentiation (Fig. 4E). The rate of decline in VDR protein during differentiation was consistently slower when 1,25(OH)2D3 was added. To test whether 1,25(OH)2D3 affected the induction or maturation phase of adipogenesis, 1,25(OH)2D3 (1028 M) was added continuously from the start of differentiation (09-end), only during the initial 3d-induction period (09 3), or between day 3 to day 14 (d3-end). When added during the induction period (09?d), 1,25(OH)2D3 did not significantly affect the expression of any differentiation markers (Fig. 5). On the other hand, addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 during the maturation period (d3-end) significantly increased differentiation to the same extent as the continuous treatment (09-end).The Pro-adipogenic Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are Greater in the Absence of Thiazolidinediones (TZD)Previous studies indicate that 18325633 TZD partially ameliorate the inhibitory effects of vitamin D on adipogenesis [4,18]. Since a TZD was one of regular components in our differentiation cocktail andVita.

Cts of 1,25(OH)2D3 on adipogenic marker expression. Human preadipocytes were

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