Motion in an ambiguous situation. We expected that perceivers would associate expressions of anger with attributions of agency to a third get Peretinoin person and expressions of LY3039478 regret with attributions of agency to the expressing person.Inferences from Others’ EmotionsAttribution theory and emotion as information theory have yielded a substantial body of research on inferences regarding others’ emotional expressions. People may use expressions of emotion to infer the cooperativeness (Van Doorn et al., 2012) and level of risk (e.g., Sorce et al., 1985; Parkinson and Simons, 2009; Parkinson et al., 2012) of the situation in which the expression takes place. Other inferences may include whetherFrontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.orgJuly 2015 | Volume 6 | Articlevan Doorn et al.Deriving meaning from others’ emotionsStudyMethod Participants and DesignRespondents were 70 people from the United States (37 women, age M = 35.66, SD = 11.55, range 18?2 years) who participated via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk website (Buhrmester et al., 2011). Participants completed a 10-min survey in exchange for 0.50 USD (a regular rate on the Mechanical Turk website). We asked participants to read one of two different scenarios, in which either anger (N = 36) or regret (N = 34) was expressed.SD = 1.67), t(59.22) = 7.64, p < 0.001, d = 1.99, r = 0.70. We therefore conclude that the emotional expression manipulation was successful.Attributions of AgencyItems for each group of dependent measures were averaged to form scales. We performed t-tests between the anger and regret conditions to compare participants’ attributions about the cause of the emotion. As expected, participants attributed more agency to their friend when he or she expressed regret (M = 3.76, SD = 1.55) compared to anger (M = 2.61, SD = 1.45), t(68) = 3.21, p = 0.002, d = 0.78, r = 36. Additionally, participants made less agency attributions to another person when their friend expressed regret (M = 4.71, SD = 1.51) compared to anger, M = 5.82, SD = 1.03, t(57.77) = 3.60, p = 0.001, d = 0.95, r = 0.43. Participants’ attributions of the incident to uncontrollable circumstances did not differ between the anger (M = 4.01, SD = 1.43) and regret conditions (M = 3.97, SD = 1.39), t(68) = 0.83, p = 0.41. This pattern of results is visually represented in Figure 1.Materials and ProcedureParticipants logged in via the Amazon website, and were redirected to a survey. They read that we were interested in the inferences people make based on minimal information. We prepared a short scenario description, which read: “Suppose you meet a good friend, whom you have not seen for a while. While you are catching up, this friend recalls something that recently happened. Your friend placed an online order for a new cell phone. The phone would be delivered to a store, where your friend could pick it up. As your friend went to the store, a salesperson was there to handle the order. Your friend goes on to tell you the whole story. While telling you what happened, your friend is [getting really angry/feeling very regretful]. Your friend expresses [anger/regret] several times.” After reading this description, participants completed a questionnaire. First, they indicated attributions with regards to the cause of the emotion expressed by their friend, by ascribing agency to their friend (three items; e.g., “Do you think the emotion of your friend was caused by his or her own behavior?” = 0.96), another person (three items; e.g., “Do yo.Motion in an ambiguous situation. We expected that perceivers would associate expressions of anger with attributions of agency to a third person and expressions of regret with attributions of agency to the expressing person.Inferences from Others’ EmotionsAttribution theory and emotion as information theory have yielded a substantial body of research on inferences regarding others’ emotional expressions. People may use expressions of emotion to infer the cooperativeness (Van Doorn et al., 2012) and level of risk (e.g., Sorce et al., 1985; Parkinson and Simons, 2009; Parkinson et al., 2012) of the situation in which the expression takes place. Other inferences may include whetherFrontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.orgJuly 2015 | Volume 6 | Articlevan Doorn et al.Deriving meaning from others’ emotionsStudyMethod Participants and DesignRespondents were 70 people from the United States (37 women, age M = 35.66, SD = 11.55, range 18?2 years) who participated via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk website (Buhrmester et al., 2011). Participants completed a 10-min survey in exchange for 0.50 USD (a regular rate on the Mechanical Turk website). We asked participants to read one of two different scenarios, in which either anger (N = 36) or regret (N = 34) was expressed.SD = 1.67), t(59.22) = 7.64, p < 0.001, d = 1.99, r = 0.70. We therefore conclude that the emotional expression manipulation was successful.Attributions of AgencyItems for each group of dependent measures were averaged to form scales. We performed t-tests between the anger and regret conditions to compare participants’ attributions about the cause of the emotion. As expected, participants attributed more agency to their friend when he or she expressed regret (M = 3.76, SD = 1.55) compared to anger (M = 2.61, SD = 1.45), t(68) = 3.21, p = 0.002, d = 0.78, r = 36. Additionally, participants made less agency attributions to another person when their friend expressed regret (M = 4.71, SD = 1.51) compared to anger, M = 5.82, SD = 1.03, t(57.77) = 3.60, p = 0.001, d = 0.95, r = 0.43. Participants’ attributions of the incident to uncontrollable circumstances did not differ between the anger (M = 4.01, SD = 1.43) and regret conditions (M = 3.97, SD = 1.39), t(68) = 0.83, p = 0.41. This pattern of results is visually represented in Figure 1.Materials and ProcedureParticipants logged in via the Amazon website, and were redirected to a survey. They read that we were interested in the inferences people make based on minimal information. We prepared a short scenario description, which read: “Suppose you meet a good friend, whom you have not seen for a while. While you are catching up, this friend recalls something that recently happened. Your friend placed an online order for a new cell phone. The phone would be delivered to a store, where your friend could pick it up. As your friend went to the store, a salesperson was there to handle the order. Your friend goes on to tell you the whole story. While telling you what happened, your friend is [getting really angry/feeling very regretful]. Your friend expresses [anger/regret] several times.” After reading this description, participants completed a questionnaire. First, they indicated attributions with regards to the cause of the emotion expressed by their friend, by ascribing agency to their friend (three items; e.g., “Do you think the emotion of your friend was caused by his or her own behavior?” = 0.96), another person (three items; e.g., “Do yo.

Motion in an ambiguous situation. We expected that perceivers would associate

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