R cells [23]. The first report to document the critical role of PKCa inPKCa Protein Overexpression in PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor 1 web gastric CarcinomaTable 4. Backward Multi-Variate Analysis of PKCa Protein Expression and Other Prognostic Markers in 215 Patients with Gastric Carcinoma.Variables PKCa overexpression Negative Positive Age ,60 ?0 Pathologic stage I+II III+IV Nodal status N0 N1-3 Distant metastasis Absent Present Local recurrence No YesHazard ratio95 CI*P**1 0.632 0.407?.982 0.1 2.953 1.749?.986 ,0.1 2.310 1.052?.073 0.1 2.115 0.861?.196 0.1 3.573 2.285?.586 ,0.1 3.174 1.856?.428 ,0.*CI: confidence interval; **Significance level: P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056675.tmaintaining the transformed phenotype of gastric cancer cells was published in 2004 [10]. Another study showed that PKCa promotes apoptosis of MGC80-3 gastric cancer cells [25]. Recently, we postulated that PKCa mRNA expression 23727046 is upregulated, and is associated with distant metastasis in gastric carcinoma [15]. Several immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that PKCa is overexpressed in buy Gracillin high-grade bladder, prostate, and endometrial cancers, whereas breast, colon, and basal cell cancers display downregulation of PKCa expression [21]. Although an association between PKCa expression and gastric carcinoma has been documented, neither the clinicopathological correlations nor the prognostic significance of PKCa protein overexpression in gastric carcinoma had been studied. In this study, we tested the PKCa mRNA expression in gastric carcinoma at first via quantitative real-time PCR using ten pairs of tumor and nontumor gastric tissues. Our data demonstrated PKCa mRNA expression was upregulated in gastric carcinoma. Then we applied immunohistochemical method to evaluate the expression of PKCa protein in gastric carcinomas. Our data indicated PKCa protein overexpression in 41 cases of gastric carcinoma. Furthermore, PKCa protein overexpression was correlated to clinicopathological parameters. We found PKCa protein overexpression to be statistically correlated with histologic type. Intestinal type tumors more frequently expressed PKCa protein than did diffuse type tumors. According to general concept of gastric carcinogenesis, intestinal type and diffuse type carcinomas appear to evolve through different pathways, involving different oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes [26]. Gene expression profiling studies have shown that diffuse type carcinoma exhibits an altered expression of genes related to cell-matrix interaction and extracellular-matrix components, whereas intestinal type carcinoma exhibits enhanced cell growth [27]. Thus we conduct that PKCa protein plays a role in gastric carcinogenesis, especially intestinal type carcinoma. We also found PKCa protein overexpression to be statistically correlated with tumor differentiation. Well to moderately-differentiated tumors more frequently expressed PKCa protein than did poorly-differentiated ones. The association between PKCa activity and tumor differentiation and/or histological grading has been reported for various malignancies. In superficial bladder cancer, abnormally activated PKCa may play a role in tumor differentiation, and elevated PKCa activation correlates with higher histological grade [28]. PKCa is highly expressed in poorlydifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines [11]. In melanomas, PKCa activation is typically associated with decreased differentiation [12]. PKCa expression is elevated in high-grade endometrial tu.R cells [23]. The first report to document the critical role of PKCa inPKCa Protein Overexpression in Gastric CarcinomaTable 4. Backward Multi-Variate Analysis of PKCa Protein Expression and Other Prognostic Markers in 215 Patients with Gastric Carcinoma.Variables PKCa overexpression Negative Positive Age ,60 ?0 Pathologic stage I+II III+IV Nodal status N0 N1-3 Distant metastasis Absent Present Local recurrence No YesHazard ratio95 CI*P**1 0.632 0.407?.982 0.1 2.953 1.749?.986 ,0.1 2.310 1.052?.073 0.1 2.115 0.861?.196 0.1 3.573 2.285?.586 ,0.1 3.174 1.856?.428 ,0.*CI: confidence interval; **Significance level: P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056675.tmaintaining the transformed phenotype of gastric cancer cells was published in 2004 [10]. Another study showed that PKCa promotes apoptosis of MGC80-3 gastric cancer cells [25]. Recently, we postulated that PKCa mRNA expression 23727046 is upregulated, and is associated with distant metastasis in gastric carcinoma [15]. Several immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that PKCa is overexpressed in high-grade bladder, prostate, and endometrial cancers, whereas breast, colon, and basal cell cancers display downregulation of PKCa expression [21]. Although an association between PKCa expression and gastric carcinoma has been documented, neither the clinicopathological correlations nor the prognostic significance of PKCa protein overexpression in gastric carcinoma had been studied. In this study, we tested the PKCa mRNA expression in gastric carcinoma at first via quantitative real-time PCR using ten pairs of tumor and nontumor gastric tissues. Our data demonstrated PKCa mRNA expression was upregulated in gastric carcinoma. Then we applied immunohistochemical method to evaluate the expression of PKCa protein in gastric carcinomas. Our data indicated PKCa protein overexpression in 41 cases of gastric carcinoma. Furthermore, PKCa protein overexpression was correlated to clinicopathological parameters. We found PKCa protein overexpression to be statistically correlated with histologic type. Intestinal type tumors more frequently expressed PKCa protein than did diffuse type tumors. According to general concept of gastric carcinogenesis, intestinal type and diffuse type carcinomas appear to evolve through different pathways, involving different oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes [26]. Gene expression profiling studies have shown that diffuse type carcinoma exhibits an altered expression of genes related to cell-matrix interaction and extracellular-matrix components, whereas intestinal type carcinoma exhibits enhanced cell growth [27]. Thus we conduct that PKCa protein plays a role in gastric carcinogenesis, especially intestinal type carcinoma. We also found PKCa protein overexpression to be statistically correlated with tumor differentiation. Well to moderately-differentiated tumors more frequently expressed PKCa protein than did poorly-differentiated ones. The association between PKCa activity and tumor differentiation and/or histological grading has been reported for various malignancies. In superficial bladder cancer, abnormally activated PKCa may play a role in tumor differentiation, and elevated PKCa activation correlates with higher histological grade [28]. PKCa is highly expressed in poorlydifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines [11]. In melanomas, PKCa activation is typically associated with decreased differentiation [12]. PKCa expression is elevated in high-grade endometrial tu.

R cells [23]. The first report to document the critical role of

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