Smaller cavities, or depressions, are not present. In fact, we could detect several disjointed, small cavities in exosite II (not shown), but none of these have the size to comfortably host a sulfate group of the H/ HS sequence. This implies that, whereas key sulfate groups of the heparin pentasaccharide penetrate into the PBS cavity to form firm `hand-shake’ interactions, the interactions of exosite II with H/HS are more superficial and transient. Our structural analysis suggests that the distinct architecture of the HBSs in antithrombin and thrombin results in distinct roles. The more flexible, surface-exposed residues are primarily responsible for the initial, non-specific recognition of the anionic H/HS ligand, whereas more buried and less conformationally flexible residues are responsible for the recognition of specific H/HS sequences. Stabilization of a specific H/HS rotein complex arises from a significant, complementary, inter-penetration phenomenon that is Octapressin site governed by favorable entropic as well as enthalpic contributions.These results imply that the specificity of H/HS interaction with a target protein can be elucidated through a rather simple structural analysis. The steps would involve answering questions including: 1) Is there a collection of less surface exposed Arg/Lys? 2) Do these less surface exposed residues exhibit less gyrational mobility? 3) Are there elements of asymmetry in the distribution of these Arg/Lys residues? 4) Does the proposed binding site host a cavity capable of engaging one or more sulfate groups that can replace bound water molecules? If the answers to these questions mimic the answers for antithrombin, the interaction can be expected to be specific. If not, the 15481974 interaction is likely to be nonspecific. We expect that the principles enunciated in this work should help predict/understand fundamental biochemistry of H/ HS rotein interactions and facilitate the design of more specific H/HS molecules with therapeutic relevance.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: PDM GEK URD. Performed the experiments: PDM CK . Analyzed the data: PDM GEK URD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PDM GEK. Wrote the paper: PDM GEK URD.
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of drug detoxification enzymes that are important in phase II metabolism by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to a variety of electrophilic substances [1]. GSTs are also involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins [2], steroids [3] and leukotrienes [4], in the detoxification of products of lipid peroxidation [5] and in the acquisition of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents [6]. GST isoenzymes are also known to modulate cell signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death [7,8] and have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer [9]. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells are extensively utilized as a model of intestinal 79831-76-8 chemical information epithelial cell differentiation as they have many phenotypic features of enterocytes [10]. In vivo, colonic epithelial cells are continuously renewing with a systematic turnover of cells involving transition between cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death by apoptosis. In culture, Caco-2 cells grow as an epithelial monolayer and undergo enterocyte-like differentiation with concomitant biochemical changes [11,12]. Differentiation of Caco-2 cells is characterized by cell polarization, appearance o.Smaller cavities, or depressions, are not present. In fact, we could detect several disjointed, small cavities in exosite II (not shown), but none of these have the size to comfortably host a sulfate group of the H/ HS sequence. This implies that, whereas key sulfate groups of the heparin pentasaccharide penetrate into the PBS cavity to form firm `hand-shake’ interactions, the interactions of exosite II with H/HS are more superficial and transient. Our structural analysis suggests that the distinct architecture of the HBSs in antithrombin and thrombin results in distinct roles. The more flexible, surface-exposed residues are primarily responsible for the initial, non-specific recognition of the anionic H/HS ligand, whereas more buried and less conformationally flexible residues are responsible for the recognition of specific H/HS sequences. Stabilization of a specific H/HS rotein complex arises from a significant, complementary, inter-penetration phenomenon that is governed by favorable entropic as well as enthalpic contributions.These results imply that the specificity of H/HS interaction with a target protein can be elucidated through a rather simple structural analysis. The steps would involve answering questions including: 1) Is there a collection of less surface exposed Arg/Lys? 2) Do these less surface exposed residues exhibit less gyrational mobility? 3) Are there elements of asymmetry in the distribution of these Arg/Lys residues? 4) Does the proposed binding site host a cavity capable of engaging one or more sulfate groups that can replace bound water molecules? If the answers to these questions mimic the answers for antithrombin, the interaction can be expected to be specific. If not, the 15481974 interaction is likely to be nonspecific. We expect that the principles enunciated in this work should help predict/understand fundamental biochemistry of H/ HS rotein interactions and facilitate the design of more specific H/HS molecules with therapeutic relevance.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: PDM GEK URD. Performed the experiments: PDM CK . Analyzed the data: PDM GEK URD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PDM GEK. Wrote the paper: PDM GEK URD.
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of drug detoxification enzymes that are important in phase II metabolism by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to a variety of electrophilic substances [1]. GSTs are also involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins [2], steroids [3] and leukotrienes [4], in the detoxification of products of lipid peroxidation [5] and in the acquisition of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents [6]. GST isoenzymes are also known to modulate cell signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death [7,8] and have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer [9]. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells are extensively utilized as a model of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation as they have many phenotypic features of enterocytes [10]. In vivo, colonic epithelial cells are continuously renewing with a systematic turnover of cells involving transition between cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death by apoptosis. In culture, Caco-2 cells grow as an epithelial monolayer and undergo enterocyte-like differentiation with concomitant biochemical changes [11,12]. Differentiation of Caco-2 cells is characterized by cell polarization, appearance o.

Smaller cavities, or depressions, are not present. In fact, we could

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