Ed by engineered HEs are subject to faithful repair and thus strategies to control the DSB-induced pathway are of interest. In this study, we provide a robust and efficient method to (i) greatly improve targeted mutagenesis frequency up to 30-fold, and; (ii) control the nature of mutagenic events in human primary cells using meganucleases in conjunction with DNA-end processing enzymes.Materials and Methods NucleasesNucleases quoted in this study are listed in Data S1.Culture conditionHuman 293H cells (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and hamster CHO-K1 cells (ATCC) were CAL-120 cultured at 37uC with 5 CO2 in complete medium DMEM and F12-K, respectively, supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, penicillin (100 U/ml),Methods to Improve Targeted Mutagenesisstreptomycin (100 mg/ml), amphotericin B (Fongizone: 0.25 mg/ ml, Life Technologies,) and 10 FBS. The human primary fibroblasts Detroit 551 (ATCC), derived from fetal skin, were cultured in MEM supplemented with 15 FBS, 1 GlutaMAXTM and 1 penicillin-streptomycin. iPS cells used for this study were provided by the Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 [30]. They were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF)-feeder layers in human stem cells medium: DMEM/F12 (Life Technologies Corporation, USA), supplemented with 25 knock-out serum replacement (Life Technologies Corporation, USA), 50 mM 2-mercaptoethanol (Life Technologies Corporation, USA), 1X Non Essential Amino Acids (Life Technologies Corporation, USA) and 10 ng/mL bFGF2 (Life Technologies Corporation, USA). MEF-conditioned medium is obtained by culture of MEF feeder with stem cell medium during 24 h.CATCCCTGCGTGTCTCCGACTCAG (forward adaptor sequence)-10N (sequences needed for PCR product identification)GCTCTCTGGCTAACTAGAGAACCC (transgenic GS locus specific forward sequence)-39 and 59CCTATCCCCTGTGTGCCTTGGCAGTCTCAG-(reverse adaptor sequence)-TCGATCAGCACGGGCACGATGCC (transgenic GS locus specific reverse sequence). PCR products were sequenced by a 454 Peptide M sequencing system (454 Roche). Several thousand sequences were obtained per PCR product and then analyzed for the presence of site-specific insertion or deletion events at the GS cleavage site (Table S2). The analysis did not consider single-base insertion or deletion events in order to avoid sequencing mistakes being defined as a mutation events.Transfection in 293H cells to monitor meganucleaseinduced mutagenesis at endogenous loci293H cells were plated at a density of 16106 cells per 10 cm dish. The next day, 3 mg of plasmid encoding the meganucleases RAG1m, DMD21m or CAPNS1m, respectively, were co-transfected with or without 2 mg of plasmid encoding Tdt in 5 mg total DNA by complementation with a pUC vector. Cells were harvested 7 days post-transfection for genomic DNA extraction and locus specific PCR for amplicon sequencing analysis. The same amount of meganuclease was co-transfected with or without 5 mg of Trex or scTrex encoding plasmids in 10 mg of total DNA. Cells were harvested 3 days post-transfection for genomic DNA extraction and locus specific PCR for amplicon sequencing analysis. Locus specific PCRs were performed using the following primers containing the adaptor sequences needed for amplicon sequencing (see above) and sequence specific to the loci: for CAPNS1 For_C: 59-CGAGTCAGGGCGGGATTAAG-39 and Rev_C: 59-CGAGACTTCACGGTTTCGCC-39; for RAG1 For_R:59-GGCAAAGATGAATCAAAGATTCTGTCC-39 and Rev_R:59-GATCTCACCCGGAACAGCTTAAATTTC-39 for DMD21.Ed by engineered HEs are subject to faithful repair and thus strategies to control the DSB-induced pathway are of interest. In this study, we provide a robust and efficient method to (i) greatly improve targeted mutagenesis frequency up to 30-fold, and; (ii) control the nature of mutagenic events in human primary cells using meganucleases in conjunction with DNA-end processing enzymes.Materials and Methods NucleasesNucleases quoted in this study are listed in Data S1.Culture conditionHuman 293H cells (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and hamster CHO-K1 cells (ATCC) were cultured at 37uC with 5 CO2 in complete medium DMEM and F12-K, respectively, supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, penicillin (100 U/ml),Methods to Improve Targeted Mutagenesisstreptomycin (100 mg/ml), amphotericin B (Fongizone: 0.25 mg/ ml, Life Technologies,) and 10 FBS. The human primary fibroblasts Detroit 551 (ATCC), derived from fetal skin, were cultured in MEM supplemented with 15 FBS, 1 GlutaMAXTM and 1 penicillin-streptomycin. iPS cells used for this study were provided by the Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 [30]. They were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF)-feeder layers in human stem cells medium: DMEM/F12 (Life Technologies Corporation, USA), supplemented with 25 knock-out serum replacement (Life Technologies Corporation, USA), 50 mM 2-mercaptoethanol (Life Technologies Corporation, USA), 1X Non Essential Amino Acids (Life Technologies Corporation, USA) and 10 ng/mL bFGF2 (Life Technologies Corporation, USA). MEF-conditioned medium is obtained by culture of MEF feeder with stem cell medium during 24 h.CATCCCTGCGTGTCTCCGACTCAG (forward adaptor sequence)-10N (sequences needed for PCR product identification)GCTCTCTGGCTAACTAGAGAACCC (transgenic GS locus specific forward sequence)-39 and 59CCTATCCCCTGTGTGCCTTGGCAGTCTCAG-(reverse adaptor sequence)-TCGATCAGCACGGGCACGATGCC (transgenic GS locus specific reverse sequence). PCR products were sequenced by a 454 sequencing system (454 Roche). Several thousand sequences were obtained per PCR product and then analyzed for the presence of site-specific insertion or deletion events at the GS cleavage site (Table S2). The analysis did not consider single-base insertion or deletion events in order to avoid sequencing mistakes being defined as a mutation events.Transfection in 293H cells to monitor meganucleaseinduced mutagenesis at endogenous loci293H cells were plated at a density of 16106 cells per 10 cm dish. The next day, 3 mg of plasmid encoding the meganucleases RAG1m, DMD21m or CAPNS1m, respectively, were co-transfected with or without 2 mg of plasmid encoding Tdt in 5 mg total DNA by complementation with a pUC vector. Cells were harvested 7 days post-transfection for genomic DNA extraction and locus specific PCR for amplicon sequencing analysis. The same amount of meganuclease was co-transfected with or without 5 mg of Trex or scTrex encoding plasmids in 10 mg of total DNA. Cells were harvested 3 days post-transfection for genomic DNA extraction and locus specific PCR for amplicon sequencing analysis. Locus specific PCRs were performed using the following primers containing the adaptor sequences needed for amplicon sequencing (see above) and sequence specific to the loci: for CAPNS1 For_C: 59-CGAGTCAGGGCGGGATTAAG-39 and Rev_C: 59-CGAGACTTCACGGTTTCGCC-39; for RAG1 For_R:59-GGCAAAGATGAATCAAAGATTCTGTCC-39 and Rev_R:59-GATCTCACCCGGAACAGCTTAAATTTC-39 for DMD21.

Ed by engineered HEs are subject to faithful repair and thus

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