Days (IQR 3,5?), in women with PPROM 4 days (IQR 0-7) and in women with PTL and intact membranes 3 days (IQR 0?4,5). The concentration of sTREM-1 was not related to the admissionto-delivery interval in women with PTB (r = 0.17, P = 0.23) neither in the subgroups (PPROM: r = 0.30, P = 0.08; PTL and intact membranes: r = -0.11, P = 0.67).Results Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Study PopulationDemographic and clinical characteristics of the study Conduritol B epoxide price population are presented in Table 1. There were no significant differences between groups regarding pre-pregnancy BMI, marital status, ethnicity, conception, parity and history of PTB. Women with PTB had a significantly lower education level than GA matched controls (P = 0.003). Women AT not in labor were significantly older than women AT in labor (P = 0.03). There were more smokers among women AT not in labor and among women with PTB as compared to women AT in labor (P = 0.04 respectively P = 0.005).DiscussionWe have used a case control study to assess sTREM-1 concentrations in serum during term and preterm labor. In line with previous observations in amniotic fluid [6], serum sTREM-1 levels are significantly increased in women with preterm labor compared to GA matched controls. sTREM-1 levels were also elevated in women at term in labor vs. those not in labor. Recent studies have demonstrated that sTREM-1, although initially described in microbial inflammation [8], is involved in noninfectious inflammatory conditions as well [15,16]. There is accumulating evidence that inflammation is also important in spontaneous labor at term [3,25?7]. Moreover, it has been shown that term labor is associated with an increased risk of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC). The more advanced the cervical dilatation, the greater the risk of MIAC [28,29]. Our observation is consistent with Youssef et al [23] who demonstrated increased TREM-1 mRNA expression in myometrium and cervix after labor at term. In contrast, Kusanovic et al [6] found no differences in amniotic fluid concentrations of sTREM-1 between laboring and non-laboring women at term. These data suggest that the maternal inflammatory response during labor may be different from the fetal response. A large cross-sectional study is needed to evaluate sTREM-1 concentrations in both compartments during labor. Since microbial invasion is more prevalent in PPROM [5,30], we expected higher sTREM-1 levels in these women. Nevertheless, we found no differences in sTREM-1 concentrations between patients with PPROM and those with PTL and intact membranes. This finding may be attributed to the relative small number of patients in both groups. In the presence of intra-amniotic infection, sTREM-1 levels in amniotic fluid were higher in women with PPROM vs. PTL and intact membranes [6]. This observation suggests that sTREM-1 is probably a good marker for intra-amniotic infection in amniotic fluid but not in maternal serum which has been recently demonstrated by Cobo et al [21]. They evaluated 27 proteins in maternal serum of women with PPROM or PTL and intact membranes and observed a weak maternal inflammatory response in women with MIAC. In particular, serum TREM-1 levels did not differ between women with and without MIAC. Moreover, differences in protein levels were only evident at early order CP-868596 gestational age (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Similar observations were 1407003 made in amniotic fluid of women with PPROM. TREM-1 concentrations did not dif.Days (IQR 3,5?), in women with PPROM 4 days (IQR 0-7) and in women with PTL and intact membranes 3 days (IQR 0?4,5). The concentration of sTREM-1 was not related to the admissionto-delivery interval in women with PTB (r = 0.17, P = 0.23) neither in the subgroups (PPROM: r = 0.30, P = 0.08; PTL and intact membranes: r = -0.11, P = 0.67).Results Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Study PopulationDemographic and clinical characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. There were no significant differences between groups regarding pre-pregnancy BMI, marital status, ethnicity, conception, parity and history of PTB. Women with PTB had a significantly lower education level than GA matched controls (P = 0.003). Women AT not in labor were significantly older than women AT in labor (P = 0.03). There were more smokers among women AT not in labor and among women with PTB as compared to women AT in labor (P = 0.04 respectively P = 0.005).DiscussionWe have used a case control study to assess sTREM-1 concentrations in serum during term and preterm labor. In line with previous observations in amniotic fluid [6], serum sTREM-1 levels are significantly increased in women with preterm labor compared to GA matched controls. sTREM-1 levels were also elevated in women at term in labor vs. those not in labor. Recent studies have demonstrated that sTREM-1, although initially described in microbial inflammation [8], is involved in noninfectious inflammatory conditions as well [15,16]. There is accumulating evidence that inflammation is also important in spontaneous labor at term [3,25?7]. Moreover, it has been shown that term labor is associated with an increased risk of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC). The more advanced the cervical dilatation, the greater the risk of MIAC [28,29]. Our observation is consistent with Youssef et al [23] who demonstrated increased TREM-1 mRNA expression in myometrium and cervix after labor at term. In contrast, Kusanovic et al [6] found no differences in amniotic fluid concentrations of sTREM-1 between laboring and non-laboring women at term. These data suggest that the maternal inflammatory response during labor may be different from the fetal response. A large cross-sectional study is needed to evaluate sTREM-1 concentrations in both compartments during labor. Since microbial invasion is more prevalent in PPROM [5,30], we expected higher sTREM-1 levels in these women. Nevertheless, we found no differences in sTREM-1 concentrations between patients with PPROM and those with PTL and intact membranes. This finding may be attributed to the relative small number of patients in both groups. In the presence of intra-amniotic infection, sTREM-1 levels in amniotic fluid were higher in women with PPROM vs. PTL and intact membranes [6]. This observation suggests that sTREM-1 is probably a good marker for intra-amniotic infection in amniotic fluid but not in maternal serum which has been recently demonstrated by Cobo et al [21]. They evaluated 27 proteins in maternal serum of women with PPROM or PTL and intact membranes and observed a weak maternal inflammatory response in women with MIAC. In particular, serum TREM-1 levels did not differ between women with and without MIAC. Moreover, differences in protein levels were only evident at early gestational age (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Similar observations were 1407003 made in amniotic fluid of women with PPROM. TREM-1 concentrations did not dif.

Days (IQR 3,5?), in women with PPROM 4 days (IQR 0-7) and in

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