Display lower basal hepatic VLDL-TG production rates whenCentral NPY and Hepatic VLDL Production in MiceFigure 4. NPY administration into the third ventricle acutely increases food intake. NPY (0.2 mg/kg) was administered in the third ventricle under light isoflurane anaesthesia, and food intake was measured for two hours, starting at 09:00 a.m. All animals served as their own controls (basal food intake). Values are means 6 SD (n = 11), *p,0.05, ***p,0.001 compared to basal. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055217.gcompared to those currently reported in mice. Whereas in control rats, plasma TG levels increased by 1531364 ,2 mM [12] and ,3.5 mM [19] within one hour after tyloxapol injection, we observed that in control mice plasma TG levels are increased by ,6 mM within the same period of time. This GMX1778 cost suggests that hepatic VLDL metabolism in itself is differentially regulated in rats versus mice. However, the apparent species difference concerning the regulation of hepatic VLDL-TG production by NPY might also be caused by a difference in the expression of its receptor. In mammals, NPY is one of the most abundant peptides found and its receptors are widely expressed in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues [25,26]. Central expression of Y1?Y5 receptors is similar in rats and mice [25]. Interestingly, in addition to the Y1 5 receptors, mice also express the Y6 receptor. This receptor, which is a get GSK0660 functional receptor in mice and is expressed in various brain sites including the hypothalamus [27,28], is not expressed in rats [29]. Even though a role for the Y6 receptor in appetite regulation has been doubted [27], the exact function of the Y6 receptor remains elusive. If activation of this receptor by NPY would exert an opposing effect specifically on hepatic VLDL production, this might explain our negative findings in mice. Obviously, further investigation is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Therefore, the Y6 receptor might be an interesting target for future research investigating the role of the central NPY system in the regulation of hepatic VLDL production in mice. Genetic association studies in humans have reported conflicting results on the role of NPY in serum TG metabolism. A polymorphism in the untranslated region between the Y1 and Y5 receptor genes was associated with lower serum TG levels in obese subjects [30]. In addition, the Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide part of the NPY gene has been linked with higher serum TG levels in preschool-aged boys [31]. However, this polymorphism was not associated with serum TG levels in female coronary heart disease patients [32]. Furthermore, studies on a variation in the 59-flanking region of the Y2 receptor gene [33] and on the NPY signal peptide polymorphism T1128C [34] both 24786787 report no association with serum TG levels. Collectively, these data emphasize the need of further research into the role of NPY in the regulation of peripheral TG metabolism. However, in light of the apparent species difference at least with respect to VLDL-TG production suggested from our study, caution should be taken when suggesting a common mechanism in humans based on findings resulting from animal studies.Figure 5. NPY administration into the third ventricle does not affect hepatic VLDL production in conscious mice. Hepatic VLDL production was assessed after a 4h-fast. Mice received an i.v. injection of Tran35S label (t = 230 min), followed by an injection of tyloxapol (t = 0 min), directly followe.Display lower basal hepatic VLDL-TG production rates whenCentral NPY and Hepatic VLDL Production in MiceFigure 4. NPY administration into the third ventricle acutely increases food intake. NPY (0.2 mg/kg) was administered in the third ventricle under light isoflurane anaesthesia, and food intake was measured for two hours, starting at 09:00 a.m. All animals served as their own controls (basal food intake). Values are means 6 SD (n = 11), *p,0.05, ***p,0.001 compared to basal. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055217.gcompared to those currently reported in mice. Whereas in control rats, plasma TG levels increased by 1531364 ,2 mM [12] and ,3.5 mM [19] within one hour after tyloxapol injection, we observed that in control mice plasma TG levels are increased by ,6 mM within the same period of time. This suggests that hepatic VLDL metabolism in itself is differentially regulated in rats versus mice. However, the apparent species difference concerning the regulation of hepatic VLDL-TG production by NPY might also be caused by a difference in the expression of its receptor. In mammals, NPY is one of the most abundant peptides found and its receptors are widely expressed in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues [25,26]. Central expression of Y1?Y5 receptors is similar in rats and mice [25]. Interestingly, in addition to the Y1 5 receptors, mice also express the Y6 receptor. This receptor, which is a functional receptor in mice and is expressed in various brain sites including the hypothalamus [27,28], is not expressed in rats [29]. Even though a role for the Y6 receptor in appetite regulation has been doubted [27], the exact function of the Y6 receptor remains elusive. If activation of this receptor by NPY would exert an opposing effect specifically on hepatic VLDL production, this might explain our negative findings in mice. Obviously, further investigation is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Therefore, the Y6 receptor might be an interesting target for future research investigating the role of the central NPY system in the regulation of hepatic VLDL production in mice. Genetic association studies in humans have reported conflicting results on the role of NPY in serum TG metabolism. A polymorphism in the untranslated region between the Y1 and Y5 receptor genes was associated with lower serum TG levels in obese subjects [30]. In addition, the Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide part of the NPY gene has been linked with higher serum TG levels in preschool-aged boys [31]. However, this polymorphism was not associated with serum TG levels in female coronary heart disease patients [32]. Furthermore, studies on a variation in the 59-flanking region of the Y2 receptor gene [33] and on the NPY signal peptide polymorphism T1128C [34] both 24786787 report no association with serum TG levels. Collectively, these data emphasize the need of further research into the role of NPY in the regulation of peripheral TG metabolism. However, in light of the apparent species difference at least with respect to VLDL-TG production suggested from our study, caution should be taken when suggesting a common mechanism in humans based on findings resulting from animal studies.Figure 5. NPY administration into the third ventricle does not affect hepatic VLDL production in conscious mice. Hepatic VLDL production was assessed after a 4h-fast. Mice received an i.v. injection of Tran35S label (t = 230 min), followed by an injection of tyloxapol (t = 0 min), directly followe.

Display lower basal hepatic VLDL-TG production rates whenCentral NPY and Hepatic

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