And lateral skin as well as ventral sites (white arrow) that were not stained by X-gal, indicating alternated permeability at E15.5 (D). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050634.gA New Mouse Model for Congenital IchthyosisWestern Blot AnalysisNewborn dorsal skin was homogenized and extracted in lysis buffer (10 mM Tris-Cl at pH 7.4, 5 mM EDTA, 100 mM NaCl, 1 Triton X-100 with Complete Proteinase Inhibitors Cocktail) (from Roche). 293T cells (human kidney cells) were grown in supplemented DMEM medium (Invitrogen), and transfected with an expression construct encoding mouse Fatp4 (NM_011989) (purchased from Open Biosystems) using FuGene6 (Roche). Cells were harvested for Western blot analysis 48 h after transfection. The primary Iloprost site antibody (1:500) was a rabbit antibody generated against the C-terminal 35 amino acids of mouse Fatp4, a gift from Dr. Paul A. Watkins (Kennedy Krieger Institute) [23]. After incubation with an HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit secondary antibody, protein bands were visualized using Super Signal West Pico Substrate (Pierce). An antibody against 317318-84-6 beta-actin (Sigma-Aldrich, cat#: A2228) was used as a loading control.toes and the tip of the tail showed signs of necrosis at birth (not shown). Although some of the mutants were able to breathe, they died shortly (within a few hours) after birth. We found no milk in their stomachs, indicating they were unable to suckle. Stretching of the skin caused widespread cracking (Fig. 1C), reminiscent of congenital ichthyoses in humans [11,27]. Breeding studies confirmed that the pigskin phenotype was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.Aberrant Epidermal Differentiation and HyperkeratosisSkin from newborn mice was harvested and processed for histological analyses. The exterior surface of the skin and the epidermal-dermal junction were flattened compared with normal skin (Fig. 2A). The mutant epidermis was notably thicker than normal. The stratum corneum of the mutant epidermis was considerably thicker than control epidermis (Fig. 2B and 2C), indicative massive hyperkeratosis (abnormal accumulation of cornified cells). The cells of the stratum granulosum showed changes in the patterning, size, and distribution of the dense basophilic keratohyalin granules in the mutant skin (Fig. 2C, white arrows). These granules contain aggregated keratin fibers and lipids, which help to build the epidermal barrier. The stratum spinosum was characterized by an increased number of cell layers in the mutant. No significant abnormalities were identified in other tissues (data not shown). To investigate proliferation and differentiation of the keratinocytes, we employed keratin immunostaining and BrdU incorporation assays (Fig. 3). In control skin, Keratin K14 expression is detected in the basal epithelial cells while keratin K1 reactivity was observed in all suprabasal cell layers (Fig. 3A). The mutant epidermis showed K14 labeling in more suprabasal layers (Fig 3A and 3B). BrdU-labeled cells were detected sporadically in the stratum basale in control epidermis, but more than twice as many BrdU-labeled cells were found in the mutant epidermis (Fig. 3B). We also assayed the epidermis for expression of Keratin K6, a marker of aberrant epidermal differentiation. K6-labeled cells were strongly detected in the suprabasal layers of the mutant epidermis, but not in the control epidermis (Fig. 3C). These findings indicate that all layers of the skin are affected in the pigskin mutant.X-gal Staining of Whole Embryos.And lateral skin as well as ventral sites (white arrow) that were not stained by X-gal, indicating alternated permeability at E15.5 (D). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050634.gA New Mouse Model for Congenital IchthyosisWestern Blot AnalysisNewborn dorsal skin was homogenized and extracted in lysis buffer (10 mM Tris-Cl at pH 7.4, 5 mM EDTA, 100 mM NaCl, 1 Triton X-100 with Complete Proteinase Inhibitors Cocktail) (from Roche). 293T cells (human kidney cells) were grown in supplemented DMEM medium (Invitrogen), and transfected with an expression construct encoding mouse Fatp4 (NM_011989) (purchased from Open Biosystems) using FuGene6 (Roche). Cells were harvested for Western blot analysis 48 h after transfection. The primary antibody (1:500) was a rabbit antibody generated against the C-terminal 35 amino acids of mouse Fatp4, a gift from Dr. Paul A. Watkins (Kennedy Krieger Institute) [23]. After incubation with an HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit secondary antibody, protein bands were visualized using Super Signal West Pico Substrate (Pierce). An antibody against beta-actin (Sigma-Aldrich, cat#: A2228) was used as a loading control.toes and the tip of the tail showed signs of necrosis at birth (not shown). Although some of the mutants were able to breathe, they died shortly (within a few hours) after birth. We found no milk in their stomachs, indicating they were unable to suckle. Stretching of the skin caused widespread cracking (Fig. 1C), reminiscent of congenital ichthyoses in humans [11,27]. Breeding studies confirmed that the pigskin phenotype was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.Aberrant Epidermal Differentiation and HyperkeratosisSkin from newborn mice was harvested and processed for histological analyses. The exterior surface of the skin and the epidermal-dermal junction were flattened compared with normal skin (Fig. 2A). The mutant epidermis was notably thicker than normal. The stratum corneum of the mutant epidermis was considerably thicker than control epidermis (Fig. 2B and 2C), indicative massive hyperkeratosis (abnormal accumulation of cornified cells). The cells of the stratum granulosum showed changes in the patterning, size, and distribution of the dense basophilic keratohyalin granules in the mutant skin (Fig. 2C, white arrows). These granules contain aggregated keratin fibers and lipids, which help to build the epidermal barrier. The stratum spinosum was characterized by an increased number of cell layers in the mutant. No significant abnormalities were identified in other tissues (data not shown). To investigate proliferation and differentiation of the keratinocytes, we employed keratin immunostaining and BrdU incorporation assays (Fig. 3). In control skin, Keratin K14 expression is detected in the basal epithelial cells while keratin K1 reactivity was observed in all suprabasal cell layers (Fig. 3A). The mutant epidermis showed K14 labeling in more suprabasal layers (Fig 3A and 3B). BrdU-labeled cells were detected sporadically in the stratum basale in control epidermis, but more than twice as many BrdU-labeled cells were found in the mutant epidermis (Fig. 3B). We also assayed the epidermis for expression of Keratin K6, a marker of aberrant epidermal differentiation. K6-labeled cells were strongly detected in the suprabasal layers of the mutant epidermis, but not in the control epidermis (Fig. 3C). These findings indicate that all layers of the skin are affected in the pigskin mutant.X-gal Staining of Whole Embryos.

And lateral skin as well as ventral sites (white arrow) that

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