O-face manner, and every structural feature or interaction is repeated twice.

O-face manner, and every structural feature or interaction is repeated twice. It was pointed out by Monod et al. [10] that the effect of a single mutation in complexes with the close-packed form may be much greater than in complexes without dihedral symmetry. This effect may allow such complexes to evolve more readily by the efficient generation of favorable interactions, and this prediction has been supported by recent docking-simulation studies [11?3].In contrast, less attention has been paid to the minor population of ring oligomers having simple n-fold rotational symmetry (designated Cn; Figure 22948146 1A). In our statistical analysis of the PDB, we found that such ring complexes may contain even or odd numbers of subunits, and there is no bias toward even numbers (Figure 1D). Ring-shaped oligomers have a wide variety of symmetry. Prime numbers of subunits give the “lowest” symmetry, and highly composite numbers having many divisors (such as 6 and 12) give the “highest” symmetry. A question then arises whether there is a biological or physical reason for rings to evolve with a prime number or highly composite number of subunits. To answer this question, we studied trp RNA binding attenuation protein (TRAP) as an illustrative case. TRAP is a ring-form homooligomer for which crystal structures are available of get BIBS39 11-mer (prime number) and 12-mer (highly composite number) forms (Figure 2A and B). TRAP is found in various species of Bacillus, and plays a central role in the regulation of transcription and 1662274 translation of the trp operon [14]. The monomers of TRAP form a ring-form homo 11-mer with a minor component of 12-mer depending on the solution conditions [16?7]. Each subunit of TRAP is composed of seven-stranded anti-parallel b-sheets and a bound tryptophan molecule. Benzocaine Recently, Tame et al. solved the crystal structure of 12-mer TRAP, which was produced artificially by joining the subunits of B. stearothermophilus TRAP in tandem with linkers of alanine residues [18,19] (Figure 2B). The crystal structure of 12mer TRAP shows exactly the same hydrogen bonding pattern and buried surface as those of the wild-type 11-mer TRAP. Allatom root mean square displacement (RMSD) between theInfluence of Symmetry on Protein DynamicsFigure 1. Ring and close-packed forms. (A) A schematic representation of a ring shaped oligomer. Subunits are arranged symmetrically (Cn symmetry) around the rotational axis (axis 1). Color gradation indicates the top and bottom of the subunit. (B) Schematic representation of a closepacked oligomer. The oligomer composed of n subunits has n/2-fold rotational symmetry around the axis 1, and 2-fold rotational symmetry around each of axes 2?. (C) The number of homooligomers (see Materials and Methods in detail). (D) The number of ring-shaped oligomers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050011.g?monomer of the 11-mer and that of 12-mer was only 0.26 A (Figure 2C and D). Despite their structural similarity, however, 12-mer TRAP is significantly less stable, as shown from the population of 12-mer in solution [15?7]. In this study, we tried to address the influence of the differences in symmetry on the dynamics of the oligomers. The 12-mer structure was modeled with subunits carrying no peptide linkers to stabilize the 12-mer form. We performed 100 ns fully-atomistic MD simulations with an explicit water environment for both forms of TRAPs as well as normal mode analysis using an elastic network model (ENM) [20,21]. The normal mode analysis wit.O-face manner, and every structural feature or interaction is repeated twice. It was pointed out by Monod et al. [10] that the effect of a single mutation in complexes with the close-packed form may be much greater than in complexes without dihedral symmetry. This effect may allow such complexes to evolve more readily by the efficient generation of favorable interactions, and this prediction has been supported by recent docking-simulation studies [11?3].In contrast, less attention has been paid to the minor population of ring oligomers having simple n-fold rotational symmetry (designated Cn; Figure 22948146 1A). In our statistical analysis of the PDB, we found that such ring complexes may contain even or odd numbers of subunits, and there is no bias toward even numbers (Figure 1D). Ring-shaped oligomers have a wide variety of symmetry. Prime numbers of subunits give the “lowest” symmetry, and highly composite numbers having many divisors (such as 6 and 12) give the “highest” symmetry. A question then arises whether there is a biological or physical reason for rings to evolve with a prime number or highly composite number of subunits. To answer this question, we studied trp RNA binding attenuation protein (TRAP) as an illustrative case. TRAP is a ring-form homooligomer for which crystal structures are available of 11-mer (prime number) and 12-mer (highly composite number) forms (Figure 2A and B). TRAP is found in various species of Bacillus, and plays a central role in the regulation of transcription and 1662274 translation of the trp operon [14]. The monomers of TRAP form a ring-form homo 11-mer with a minor component of 12-mer depending on the solution conditions [16?7]. Each subunit of TRAP is composed of seven-stranded anti-parallel b-sheets and a bound tryptophan molecule. Recently, Tame et al. solved the crystal structure of 12-mer TRAP, which was produced artificially by joining the subunits of B. stearothermophilus TRAP in tandem with linkers of alanine residues [18,19] (Figure 2B). The crystal structure of 12mer TRAP shows exactly the same hydrogen bonding pattern and buried surface as those of the wild-type 11-mer TRAP. Allatom root mean square displacement (RMSD) between theInfluence of Symmetry on Protein DynamicsFigure 1. Ring and close-packed forms. (A) A schematic representation of a ring shaped oligomer. Subunits are arranged symmetrically (Cn symmetry) around the rotational axis (axis 1). Color gradation indicates the top and bottom of the subunit. (B) Schematic representation of a closepacked oligomer. The oligomer composed of n subunits has n/2-fold rotational symmetry around the axis 1, and 2-fold rotational symmetry around each of axes 2?. (C) The number of homooligomers (see Materials and Methods in detail). (D) The number of ring-shaped oligomers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050011.g?monomer of the 11-mer and that of 12-mer was only 0.26 A (Figure 2C and D). Despite their structural similarity, however, 12-mer TRAP is significantly less stable, as shown from the population of 12-mer in solution [15?7]. In this study, we tried to address the influence of the differences in symmetry on the dynamics of the oligomers. The 12-mer structure was modeled with subunits carrying no peptide linkers to stabilize the 12-mer form. We performed 100 ns fully-atomistic MD simulations with an explicit water environment for both forms of TRAPs as well as normal mode analysis using an elastic network model (ENM) [20,21]. The normal mode analysis wit.