G then able to bind inner PM phospholipids as well as

G then able to bind inner PM phospholipids as well as cytoplasmic membranes of organelles (Fig. 3d; Table 1); and/or (ii) incubated with cells to target outer leaflet phospholipids after transbilayer flip-flop. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is one of these well-characterized probes specific for phosphoinositides (PIs; [122]). The 100 amino acid-PH domain is contained in several proteins, such as pleckstrin or phospholipase C (PLC), with distinct binding affinity for GSK-AHAB site different PIs [123]. For instance, PH domain of PLC (PH-PLC) has a high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) [124, 125]. The discoidin C2 domain is another probe, specific for phosphatidylserine (PS). The 160 amino acid-discoidin C2 domain is present in blood coagulation factors V and VIII, milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8; also known as lactadherin [Lact-C2]) and other plasma proteins. PH or discoidin C2 domains can be fluorescently tagged, allowing to study phospholipid membrane distribution [126-128]. Other globular domains capable to bind phospholipids at the membrane surface include: (i) the FYVE zinc finger domain found in EEA1 (Early Endosome Antigen 1) a.o. that binds to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P); and (ii) the calcium-dependent phospholipid binding Annexins, such as Annexin A2, which preferentially interacts with PIP2, or Annexin A5, which is currently the most commonly used probe for PS targeting at outer PM leaflet [129]. To further overcome limitation due to lack of PS labeling at the luminal membrane leaflet of organelles. Parton and coll. recently developed a novel on-section labeling approach on fast-frozen sample using purified GST (glutathione-S-transferase)-Lact-C2 fusion protein followed by transmission electron microscopy. This technique is based on PM01183 site high-pressure freezing, freeze-substitution with minimal fixatives and embedding at low temperature. Sections are then fixed, labeled with purified GST-Lact-C2 and followed by detection with anti-GST antibody and protein A?Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptProg Lipid Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 01.Carquin et al.Pagegold. Such method avoids cell permeabilization as well as detergent extraction [126]. For more details on phospholipid-binding domains, please refer to [130]. Similarly to other probes, this approach also presents limitations including perturbation of normal lipid function upon high expression and high variability of affinity and specificity [129, 131]. 3.1.3. Antibodies, Fab fragments and nanobodies–Antibodies have been recognized as gold standard to detect proteins. Interestingly, several antibodies have also been generated to decorate PM lipids (Fig. 3e). For example, there are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced to detect specific GSLs expressed during the differentiation of oligodendrocytes and used for studying their in vitro maturation: (i) the mAb A2B5, against gangliosides GD3, GT3 and O-acetylated GT3 in early oligodendrocyte progenitors; (ii) the mAb O4, against sulfated GSLs expressed by late progenitors; and (iii) the mAb O1 and the mAb Ranscht, against galactosylceramides in mature oligodendrocytes (for a review, see [132]). These antibodies have revealed submicrometric GSL-enriched domains at different stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation, as illustrated in Table 1. Although less developed, antibodies are also used to decorate phospholipids. For example, the role of PS do.G then able to bind inner PM phospholipids as well as cytoplasmic membranes of organelles (Fig. 3d; Table 1); and/or (ii) incubated with cells to target outer leaflet phospholipids after transbilayer flip-flop. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is one of these well-characterized probes specific for phosphoinositides (PIs; [122]). The 100 amino acid-PH domain is contained in several proteins, such as pleckstrin or phospholipase C (PLC), with distinct binding affinity for different PIs [123]. For instance, PH domain of PLC (PH-PLC) has a high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) [124, 125]. The discoidin C2 domain is another probe, specific for phosphatidylserine (PS). The 160 amino acid-discoidin C2 domain is present in blood coagulation factors V and VIII, milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8; also known as lactadherin [Lact-C2]) and other plasma proteins. PH or discoidin C2 domains can be fluorescently tagged, allowing to study phospholipid membrane distribution [126-128]. Other globular domains capable to bind phospholipids at the membrane surface include: (i) the FYVE zinc finger domain found in EEA1 (Early Endosome Antigen 1) a.o. that binds to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P); and (ii) the calcium-dependent phospholipid binding Annexins, such as Annexin A2, which preferentially interacts with PIP2, or Annexin A5, which is currently the most commonly used probe for PS targeting at outer PM leaflet [129]. To further overcome limitation due to lack of PS labeling at the luminal membrane leaflet of organelles. Parton and coll. recently developed a novel on-section labeling approach on fast-frozen sample using purified GST (glutathione-S-transferase)-Lact-C2 fusion protein followed by transmission electron microscopy. This technique is based on high-pressure freezing, freeze-substitution with minimal fixatives and embedding at low temperature. Sections are then fixed, labeled with purified GST-Lact-C2 and followed by detection with anti-GST antibody and protein A?Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptProg Lipid Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 01.Carquin et al.Pagegold. Such method avoids cell permeabilization as well as detergent extraction [126]. For more details on phospholipid-binding domains, please refer to [130]. Similarly to other probes, this approach also presents limitations including perturbation of normal lipid function upon high expression and high variability of affinity and specificity [129, 131]. 3.1.3. Antibodies, Fab fragments and nanobodies–Antibodies have been recognized as gold standard to detect proteins. Interestingly, several antibodies have also been generated to decorate PM lipids (Fig. 3e). For example, there are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced to detect specific GSLs expressed during the differentiation of oligodendrocytes and used for studying their in vitro maturation: (i) the mAb A2B5, against gangliosides GD3, GT3 and O-acetylated GT3 in early oligodendrocyte progenitors; (ii) the mAb O4, against sulfated GSLs expressed by late progenitors; and (iii) the mAb O1 and the mAb Ranscht, against galactosylceramides in mature oligodendrocytes (for a review, see [132]). These antibodies have revealed submicrometric GSL-enriched domains at different stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation, as illustrated in Table 1. Although less developed, antibodies are also used to decorate phospholipids. For example, the role of PS do.