omoter of aneuploidy and clonal evolution hyperactive Separase is an excellent candidate for explaining the cytogenetic in vivo data. Materials and Methods Cell lines and culture conditions Six human cell lines were investigated. NHDF was derived from Promocell GmbH. KCL-22, BV-173, LAMA-84 and K562 were obtained from the DSMZ. The immortalized human urothelial cell line UROtsa was a gift of the Department of Urology, Mannheim Medical Center, Mannheim Germany and cultured as previously described. All cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2% glutamine and 1% penicillin-streptomycin at 37C in 5% CO2 atmosphere. Exponentially growing cells were used in at least triplicate experiments. Patients and ethics statement Clinical and cytogenetic data of 1151 patients with Ph+ and BCR-ABL+ CP CML randomized to the German CML-Study IV PubMed ID: were investigated. Mean observation time was 5.6 years. There were 459 female 3 / 18 Separase Activity in CML and 692 male patients with a median age of 53 years; median age was lower in ACA patients. The definitions of CML phases followed the ELN recommendations. The protocol followed the declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the IRB/ Medizinische Ethikkommision II der Medizinischen Fakultt Mannheim der Ruprecht-KarlsUniversitt Heidelberg.. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients before they entered the study. The CML study IV is registered at as # NCT00055874. Imatinib treatment Cells were treated with IM in concentrations of 1 to 10M for 24h, 48h and 6d. Untreated cells served as controls. Separase silencing by espl1-directed siRNA Espl1-specific siRNA was purchased from Qiagen,. As negative controls the same cells were transfected with AllStars Negative Control siRNA a nonsilencing siRNA with no homology to any known mammalian gene. Transfection was accomplished using the Nucleofector manual. For siRNA treatment, 5×106 BV-173 cells and 2×106 LAMA-84 cells were resuspended in 100 l Cell Line Nucleofector Solution V or Solution R containing 18 l Supplement S Solution. SiRNA was added to a final concentration of 0.01 nmol per 106 cells. Quantification of espl1 transcripts by qRT-PCR Total RNA was extracted using RNeasy kit and reverse transcribed using Superscript II kit. For quantification of separase transcript levels, the commercial Hs_ESPL1_1_SG QuantiTect Primer Assay was employed according to the instructions of the manufacturer. For normalization, the housekeeping gene beta-glucuronidase was amplified. QRT-PCR PubMed ID: was performed with the Roche LightCycler 480 System, using LC480 DNA Master SYBR Green and the standard LightCycler protocol. Relative transcript levels calculated from triplicate measurements were calculated by the 2-CT method with values normalized to gus and relative to transcription in untreated control cells. Western blot analysis, BIRB796 antibodies Western blot immunostaining of p210BCR-ABL, pCrkL, Separase, Securin, CyclinB1 and Actin was performed as described previously. Karyotype analysis Cytogenetic analysis was performed as described previously. At least 20 metaphases were analyzed by G- or R-banding technique and interpreted according to the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. 4 / 18 Separase Activity in CML Separase activity assay About 60 g cleared native protein lysate was analyzed in a quantitative fluorogenic assay according to Basu and coworkers. Spectrofluorometry was performed as described

Despite the important physiological role of NPP1-3, little is known about their stereospecificity

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