Mosquito bite controls compared to n = 18 PfSPZ participants combined; Figure 4A). On initial examination, estimated PMRs appeared higher following PfSPZ Challenge than for control subjects infected by mosquito bite (mean 1665 fold parasite increase per 48 hours for PfSPZ Challenge; mean 1064.7 fold parasite increase per 48 hours for mosquito-bite; Figure 5 Figure S2). We have however recently found a negative relationship between LBI and PMR in mosquito-bite CHMI subjects, the reason for which remains unclear. [30] The distribution of estimated PMRs observed in participants infected using PfSPZ Challenge appears similar to that observed among subjects with low LBIs from previous mosquito-bite CHMI trials (principally subjects who had been immunised with the liver-stage antigen TRAP, which is unlikely to affect PMR; Figure 5). It thus seems likely that asexual parasite growth after PfSPZ Challenge administration follows similar kinetics to that after mosquito-bite challenge delivery of a similar LBI.Statistical AnalysisThe study was designed to assess proof of concept rather than to look for statistically significant associations and the sample size was accordingly kept to the minimum. As is appropriate in an underpowered study, statistical analyses are primarily descriptive in nature and significance tests used sparingly and interpreted with caution. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 1113-59-3 version 5.03 for Windows (GraphPad Software Inc., USA). Differences between groups in time to malaria diagnosis were compared using a log-rank test and described using the Kaplan Meier method. qPCR results were compared using non-parametric tests.PfSPZ Challenge ReactogenicityAll AEs following injection of PfSPZ Challenge were mild and short lived (Figure S1 and Table S8). No serious AEs occurred. One participant who received 25,000 MedChemExpress A196 sporozoites IM described gum bleeding on teeth-brushing starting the evening following injection of PfSPZ Challenge. Full blood count and clotting assays were normal and there was no visible pathology on examination. This AE resolved within 2 days and did not recur. No laboratory AEs related to PfSPZ Challenge injection were noted.Results Study Participants and InterventionRecruitment took place between September and November ?2011. Eighteen healthy malaria-naive adult participants (8 female and 10 male) underwent CHMI in November 2011 (Figure 1). The mean age of participants was 24.2 years (range 18?7) (Table S4).Optimising CHMI Using Needle SyringeFigure 2. PfSPZ Challenge Infectivity Data. Kaplan-Meier analysis of time to patent parasitemia in days between injection and diagnosis (p = 0.024 logrank test). 2,500 ID = 2,500 sporozoites administered intradermally (ID). 2,500 IM = 2,500 sporozoites administered intramuscularly. 25,000 = 25,000 sporozoites administered intramuscularly. Median pre-patent period = 13.19 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 17.8 days for 2,500 sporozoites IM, 12.72 days for 25,000 sporozoites IM. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065960.gPfSPZ Induced Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Infection (Figure S1)One of the 14 participants (7.14 ) diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria experienced no symptoms or signs of malaria infection. The total duration of symptoms in participants with symptomatic malaria infection ranged from 1?2 days (mean 6.0+/23.12 days), similar to that seen at a recent mosquito bite CHMI trial at our centre, [29] and there appeared no difference in duration of symptoms of malaria between.Mosquito bite controls compared to n = 18 PfSPZ participants combined; Figure 4A). On initial examination, estimated PMRs appeared higher following PfSPZ Challenge than for control subjects infected by mosquito bite (mean 1665 fold parasite increase per 48 hours for PfSPZ Challenge; mean 1064.7 fold parasite increase per 48 hours for mosquito-bite; Figure 5 Figure S2). We have however recently found a negative relationship between LBI and PMR in mosquito-bite CHMI subjects, the reason for which remains unclear. [30] The distribution of estimated PMRs observed in participants infected using PfSPZ Challenge appears similar to that observed among subjects with low LBIs from previous mosquito-bite CHMI trials (principally subjects who had been immunised with the liver-stage antigen TRAP, which is unlikely to affect PMR; Figure 5). It thus seems likely that asexual parasite growth after PfSPZ Challenge administration follows similar kinetics to that after mosquito-bite challenge delivery of a similar LBI.Statistical AnalysisThe study was designed to assess proof of concept rather than to look for statistically significant associations and the sample size was accordingly kept to the minimum. As is appropriate in an underpowered study, statistical analyses are primarily descriptive in nature and significance tests used sparingly and interpreted with caution. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.03 for Windows (GraphPad Software Inc., USA). Differences between groups in time to malaria diagnosis were compared using a log-rank test and described using the Kaplan Meier method. qPCR results were compared using non-parametric tests.PfSPZ Challenge ReactogenicityAll AEs following injection of PfSPZ Challenge were mild and short lived (Figure S1 and Table S8). No serious AEs occurred. One participant who received 25,000 sporozoites IM described gum bleeding on teeth-brushing starting the evening following injection of PfSPZ Challenge. Full blood count and clotting assays were normal and there was no visible pathology on examination. This AE resolved within 2 days and did not recur. No laboratory AEs related to PfSPZ Challenge injection were noted.Results Study Participants and InterventionRecruitment took place between September and November ?2011. Eighteen healthy malaria-naive adult participants (8 female and 10 male) underwent CHMI in November 2011 (Figure 1). The mean age of participants was 24.2 years (range 18?7) (Table S4).Optimising CHMI Using Needle SyringeFigure 2. PfSPZ Challenge Infectivity Data. Kaplan-Meier analysis of time to patent parasitemia in days between injection and diagnosis (p = 0.024 logrank test). 2,500 ID = 2,500 sporozoites administered intradermally (ID). 2,500 IM = 2,500 sporozoites administered intramuscularly. 25,000 = 25,000 sporozoites administered intramuscularly. Median pre-patent period = 13.19 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 17.8 days for 2,500 sporozoites IM, 12.72 days for 25,000 sporozoites IM. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065960.gPfSPZ Induced Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Infection (Figure S1)One of the 14 participants (7.14 ) diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria experienced no symptoms or signs of malaria infection. The total duration of symptoms in participants with symptomatic malaria infection ranged from 1?2 days (mean 6.0+/23.12 days), similar to that seen at a recent mosquito bite CHMI trial at our centre, [29] and there appeared no difference in duration of symptoms of malaria between.

Mosquito bite controls compared to n = 18 PfSPZ participants combined; Figure 4A

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