Tein E (apoE) gene to families with a higher risk of late onset AD and of sporadic AD [15?7]. There are three major alleles of apoE, termed E2 (apoE2), E3 (apoE3), and E4 (apoE4), of which apoE4 is the AD risk factor. The frequency of apoE4 in sporadic AD is .50 , and it increases the risk for AD by loweringthe age of onset of the disease by 7 to 9 years per allele copy [16]. Histological and biochemical studies of AD brains and brains of transgenic mice that express human apoE3, the AD benign apoE allele, and apoE4, revealed that apoE4 is associated with decreased neuronal plasticity [18] and with synaptic pathology [19?4]. The mechanisms underlying the effects of apoE4 in the brain and their neuronal and synaptic specificity are not known. Progress in this regard is hampered by the complexity of the brain and the multitude of its neuronal populations. The vertebrate retina, which originates as an outgrowth of the developing brain, is part of the central nervous system and can be considered a specific part of the brain. The retina is a layered structure with several 58-49-1 layers of interconnected neurons. These include the outer nuclear layer (ONL), which contains the cell nuclei of the photoreceptor cells. These cells connect via the bipolar cells that reside in the inner nuclear layer (INL), to the ganglion cell layer (GCL) 16985061 whose axons project from the retina via the optic nerve to the brain. The synaptic connections between these neurons form two layers. Accordingly, the outer plexiform layer (OPL) contains the synapses linking the ONL to the INL, whereas the inner plexiform layer (IPL) contains the synaptic connections between the INL and GCL. Laterally connecting horizontal cells that BI-78D3 integrate and regulate the input from the photoreceptors are located in the OPL, while the amacrine cells that modulate the output of the bipolar cells to the GCL are foundApoE4 Induces Retinal Impairmentsin the IPL. This neuronal architecture renders the retina most suitable for studying the susceptibility of distinct CNS neuronal classes to insults. A growing body of evidence suggests that AD is associated with visual dysfunction and retinal pathology. These impairments include loss of ganglion cells [25,26], as well as the accumulation of Ab-containing deposits termed drusen [27]. The effects of apoE4 on the retina have also been studied. The literature in this regard is, however, sparse and focuses on diseases other than AD. Accordingly, it has been suggested that apoE4 is a risk factor for macular edema in type 2 diabetes [28] and that, surprisingly, it is protective of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) [29,30]. Animal model studies utilizing aged apoE4-targeted replacement mice, which were maintained on a high-fat cholesterol-enriched diet, revealed pathological changes that mimic those associated with human AMD. These observations provide a proof of principle that retinal neurons, like brain neurons, are differentially affected by the different human apoE genotypes. Additional studies are needed for unraveling how different apoE isoforms affect the retina under normal and diseased conditions and for elucidating the mechanisms that underlie them. We presently employed the retina as a model for studying the neuronal and synaptic specificity of the pathological effects of apoE4 in young targeted replacement mice and showed that they correlate with the corresponding effects of apoE4 in the brain.histomount (Invitrogen). The sections were viewed usi.Tein E (apoE) gene to families with a higher risk of late onset AD and of sporadic AD [15?7]. There are three major alleles of apoE, termed E2 (apoE2), E3 (apoE3), and E4 (apoE4), of which apoE4 is the AD risk factor. The frequency of apoE4 in sporadic AD is .50 , and it increases the risk for AD by loweringthe age of onset of the disease by 7 to 9 years per allele copy [16]. Histological and biochemical studies of AD brains and brains of transgenic mice that express human apoE3, the AD benign apoE allele, and apoE4, revealed that apoE4 is associated with decreased neuronal plasticity [18] and with synaptic pathology [19?4]. The mechanisms underlying the effects of apoE4 in the brain and their neuronal and synaptic specificity are not known. Progress in this regard is hampered by the complexity of the brain and the multitude of its neuronal populations. The vertebrate retina, which originates as an outgrowth of the developing brain, is part of the central nervous system and can be considered a specific part of the brain. The retina is a layered structure with several layers of interconnected neurons. These include the outer nuclear layer (ONL), which contains the cell nuclei of the photoreceptor cells. These cells connect via the bipolar cells that reside in the inner nuclear layer (INL), to the ganglion cell layer (GCL) 16985061 whose axons project from the retina via the optic nerve to the brain. The synaptic connections between these neurons form two layers. Accordingly, the outer plexiform layer (OPL) contains the synapses linking the ONL to the INL, whereas the inner plexiform layer (IPL) contains the synaptic connections between the INL and GCL. Laterally connecting horizontal cells that integrate and regulate the input from the photoreceptors are located in the OPL, while the amacrine cells that modulate the output of the bipolar cells to the GCL are foundApoE4 Induces Retinal Impairmentsin the IPL. This neuronal architecture renders the retina most suitable for studying the susceptibility of distinct CNS neuronal classes to insults. A growing body of evidence suggests that AD is associated with visual dysfunction and retinal pathology. These impairments include loss of ganglion cells [25,26], as well as the accumulation of Ab-containing deposits termed drusen [27]. The effects of apoE4 on the retina have also been studied. The literature in this regard is, however, sparse and focuses on diseases other than AD. Accordingly, it has been suggested that apoE4 is a risk factor for macular edema in type 2 diabetes [28] and that, surprisingly, it is protective of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) [29,30]. Animal model studies utilizing aged apoE4-targeted replacement mice, which were maintained on a high-fat cholesterol-enriched diet, revealed pathological changes that mimic those associated with human AMD. These observations provide a proof of principle that retinal neurons, like brain neurons, are differentially affected by the different human apoE genotypes. Additional studies are needed for unraveling how different apoE isoforms affect the retina under normal and diseased conditions and for elucidating the mechanisms that underlie them. We presently employed the retina as a model for studying the neuronal and synaptic specificity of the pathological effects of apoE4 in young targeted replacement mice and showed that they correlate with the corresponding effects of apoE4 in the brain.histomount (Invitrogen). The sections were viewed usi.

Tein E (apoE) gene to families with a higher risk of

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.