Te the paper: CSM AJC JHE DPO. Review of the Manuscript: CSM AJC TS DPO JG LS PDC ECC MSDF EA JHE. Approval of final Manuscript: CSM AJC TS DPO JG LS PDC ECC MSDF EA JHE.
Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if the conditions are favorable for fungi growth [1]. Deoxynivalenol (DON), also called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin which is highly prevalent in Europe [2?]. In poultry, DON rarely causes acute mycotoxicosis. However, chronic exposure to the toxin can lead to reduced production and an altered immune function [5]. As poultry seems to be less susceptible to DON-mycotoxicosis compared to other animals, infected cereal batches are sometimes diverted to the poultry feed production [6]. Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents are MedChemExpress (-)-Calyculin A frequently used feed additives to reduce the adverse effects of mycotoxins. Detoxifiers based on clay minerals are classified bythe European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as adsorbing agents [7]. Mycotoxins are food and feed contaminants and thus after ingestion the intestine can be exposed to high concentrations of the toxins [8,9]. The epithelial surface of the intestine is characterized by a large contact area for absorption of MedChemExpress 374913-63-0 nutrients and xenobiotics. This surface consists of a simple columnar epithelium, which is increased by the presence of villi [10]. Both toxins and mycotoxin detoxifiers can interact with this surface area, resulting in altered extent and rate of absorption of xenobiotics such as drugs and mycotoxins. For example, we found in a previous study higher plasma concentrations of DON in animals fed contaminated feed in combination with a clay-based adsorbing agent compared to animals fed DON contaminated feed only [11,12].Adsorbing Agent Shifts the Effects of DONThe absorbing epithelial cells (enterocytes) are connected strongly by tight junction proteins. These tight junctions seal off the luminal end of the intercellular space and so transport by this paracellular route is very limited [13]. Claudins are transmembrane proteins which form the backbone of the tight junction strands. Claudin 1 and 5 are known to interact and are important to guarantee the intestinal barrier function. Both claudins have already been characterized in chickens [14?16]. The family of zona occludens, including zona occludens 1 (ZO 1) and zona occludens 2 (ZO 2), is a group of scaffolding proteins which is part of the cytoplasmic plaque of the tight junctions. The intestinal epithelial cells also contribute to the regulation of inflammatory conditions and create a kind of barrier against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the intestinal epithelium, particularly TLR4, serve as rapid pathogen sensors. After intestinal absorption of mycotoxins these compounds reach the liver as the gateway of the portal blood draining the gastrointestinal tract. Both intestine and liver consist of rapidly proliferating cells and have a high protein turnover rate. Therefore, we may suppose that these organs are more sensitive for the action of DON [17]. The toxicity of DON is mediated by various mechanisms. Trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of the RNA, DNA and protein synthesis [18]. In addition, DON may induce the production of free radicals and cellular oxidative stress. It has been shown that oxidative stress causes up-regulation of hypoxiainducible factor 1, subunit alpha (HIF-1a) [19], a transcription factor which regulates genes involved in inflammati.Te the paper: CSM AJC JHE DPO. Review of the Manuscript: CSM AJC TS DPO JG LS PDC ECC MSDF EA JHE. Approval of final Manuscript: CSM AJC TS DPO JG LS PDC ECC MSDF EA JHE.
Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if the conditions are favorable for fungi growth [1]. Deoxynivalenol (DON), also called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin which is highly prevalent in Europe [2?]. In poultry, DON rarely causes acute mycotoxicosis. However, chronic exposure to the toxin can lead to reduced production and an altered immune function [5]. As poultry seems to be less susceptible to DON-mycotoxicosis compared to other animals, infected cereal batches are sometimes diverted to the poultry feed production [6]. Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents are frequently used feed additives to reduce the adverse effects of mycotoxins. Detoxifiers based on clay minerals are classified bythe European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as adsorbing agents [7]. Mycotoxins are food and feed contaminants and thus after ingestion the intestine can be exposed to high concentrations of the toxins [8,9]. The epithelial surface of the intestine is characterized by a large contact area for absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. This surface consists of a simple columnar epithelium, which is increased by the presence of villi [10]. Both toxins and mycotoxin detoxifiers can interact with this surface area, resulting in altered extent and rate of absorption of xenobiotics such as drugs and mycotoxins. For example, we found in a previous study higher plasma concentrations of DON in animals fed contaminated feed in combination with a clay-based adsorbing agent compared to animals fed DON contaminated feed only [11,12].Adsorbing Agent Shifts the Effects of DONThe absorbing epithelial cells (enterocytes) are connected strongly by tight junction proteins. These tight junctions seal off the luminal end of the intercellular space and so transport by this paracellular route is very limited [13]. Claudins are transmembrane proteins which form the backbone of the tight junction strands. Claudin 1 and 5 are known to interact and are important to guarantee the intestinal barrier function. Both claudins have already been characterized in chickens [14?16]. The family of zona occludens, including zona occludens 1 (ZO 1) and zona occludens 2 (ZO 2), is a group of scaffolding proteins which is part of the cytoplasmic plaque of the tight junctions. The intestinal epithelial cells also contribute to the regulation of inflammatory conditions and create a kind of barrier against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the intestinal epithelium, particularly TLR4, serve as rapid pathogen sensors. After intestinal absorption of mycotoxins these compounds reach the liver as the gateway of the portal blood draining the gastrointestinal tract. Both intestine and liver consist of rapidly proliferating cells and have a high protein turnover rate. Therefore, we may suppose that these organs are more sensitive for the action of DON [17]. The toxicity of DON is mediated by various mechanisms. Trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of the RNA, DNA and protein synthesis [18]. In addition, DON may induce the production of free radicals and cellular oxidative stress. It has been shown that oxidative stress causes up-regulation of hypoxiainducible factor 1, subunit alpha (HIF-1a) [19], a transcription factor which regulates genes involved in inflammati.

Te the paper: CSM AJC JHE DPO. Review of the Manuscript

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