E assessment that aquatic JW-74 Viruses are extraordinarily diverse, but the majority of sequences obtainedfrom these investigations are not similar to known genes, indicating that much of the genomic information in aquatic viruses has yet to be characterized 22948146 [10]. The high diversity of aquatic viral communities means that very few sequences from metagenomic analyses can be reassembled into larger stretches of sequence [11?3]. Without reassembly of the fragmented genomes, the genetic structure of individual viruses cannot be assessed and genes cannot be investigated within the context of whole genomes. The current methods used to construct these metagenomic libraries also eliminate any phenotypic information about viruses in the samples. So far, with the exception of a small single-stranded DNA virus [14], reassembly of uncultivated prokaryotic and viral genomes from shotgun libraries of aquatic assemblages has only been achieved with samples that contain low diversity of bacteria or viruses [15?7]. This had led to the suggestion that, in addition to advances in sequencing technology and computational methods [18?0], there should also be a focus on improving upstream methods that are used to prepare samples for metagenomic analyses, specifically methods that reduce the diversity of the samples through physical fractionation [21]. In fact, computational models have shown that separating viruses from a sample into two or more fractions can increase the assembly of sequenced DNA fragments from the constituent viral assemblage [22].Assembly of a Viral Metagenome after FractionationMulti-dimensional physical fractionation of natural aquatic viral assemblages can be achieved by exploiting differences in the sizes, surface charges, and buoyant densities among different populations of viruses [23]. Here, we use two physical fractionation steps in series to enrich a limited number of viral consortia from a complex marine assemblage in order to test whether such a procedure would result in a high proportion of assembled sequences.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementNo specific permits were required for the described field studies. Samples were Castanospermine web collected from public waters and no specific permissions were required. Samples consisted of microscopic plankton, which are not endangered or protected.Sample CollectionA viral concentrate was collected on October 17, 2006 from a depth of 3 m approximately 25 m off the southeast shore of ?Coconut Island (Moku O Lo`e) located 15755315 in Kane`ohe Bay, Oahu, HI. Approximately 1800 l of water was filtered through 0.2 mm pore-size cartridge filters with polyethersulfone membranes (Polycap, Whatman). Viruses in the filtrate were concentrated with a tangential flow filtration cassette with 100 kDa nominal molecular weight cut-off (NMWCO) regenerated cellulose membrane (Pellicon 2, Millipore). The concentrate was stored at 4uC after addition of protease inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich) at a final concentration of approximately 100 mg l21 in an attempt to decrease viral degradation. The sample was then further concentrated with 100 kDa NMWCO Centricon-80 centrifugal ultrafiltration devices (Millipore) and stored at 4uC until fractionation.Viral Genome Size DistributionsPulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to monitor viral genome size distributions in the fractions collected from viral fractionation as an indicator of fractionation progress. Viruses in fractions were concentrated with 100 kDa NMWCO Nanosep centrifugal ultr.E assessment that aquatic viruses are extraordinarily diverse, but the majority of sequences obtainedfrom these investigations are not similar to known genes, indicating that much of the genomic information in aquatic viruses has yet to be characterized 22948146 [10]. The high diversity of aquatic viral communities means that very few sequences from metagenomic analyses can be reassembled into larger stretches of sequence [11?3]. Without reassembly of the fragmented genomes, the genetic structure of individual viruses cannot be assessed and genes cannot be investigated within the context of whole genomes. The current methods used to construct these metagenomic libraries also eliminate any phenotypic information about viruses in the samples. So far, with the exception of a small single-stranded DNA virus [14], reassembly of uncultivated prokaryotic and viral genomes from shotgun libraries of aquatic assemblages has only been achieved with samples that contain low diversity of bacteria or viruses [15?7]. This had led to the suggestion that, in addition to advances in sequencing technology and computational methods [18?0], there should also be a focus on improving upstream methods that are used to prepare samples for metagenomic analyses, specifically methods that reduce the diversity of the samples through physical fractionation [21]. In fact, computational models have shown that separating viruses from a sample into two or more fractions can increase the assembly of sequenced DNA fragments from the constituent viral assemblage [22].Assembly of a Viral Metagenome after FractionationMulti-dimensional physical fractionation of natural aquatic viral assemblages can be achieved by exploiting differences in the sizes, surface charges, and buoyant densities among different populations of viruses [23]. Here, we use two physical fractionation steps in series to enrich a limited number of viral consortia from a complex marine assemblage in order to test whether such a procedure would result in a high proportion of assembled sequences.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementNo specific permits were required for the described field studies. Samples were collected from public waters and no specific permissions were required. Samples consisted of microscopic plankton, which are not endangered or protected.Sample CollectionA viral concentrate was collected on October 17, 2006 from a depth of 3 m approximately 25 m off the southeast shore of ?Coconut Island (Moku O Lo`e) located 15755315 in Kane`ohe Bay, Oahu, HI. Approximately 1800 l of water was filtered through 0.2 mm pore-size cartridge filters with polyethersulfone membranes (Polycap, Whatman). Viruses in the filtrate were concentrated with a tangential flow filtration cassette with 100 kDa nominal molecular weight cut-off (NMWCO) regenerated cellulose membrane (Pellicon 2, Millipore). The concentrate was stored at 4uC after addition of protease inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich) at a final concentration of approximately 100 mg l21 in an attempt to decrease viral degradation. The sample was then further concentrated with 100 kDa NMWCO Centricon-80 centrifugal ultrafiltration devices (Millipore) and stored at 4uC until fractionation.Viral Genome Size DistributionsPulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to monitor viral genome size distributions in the fractions collected from viral fractionation as an indicator of fractionation progress. Viruses in fractions were concentrated with 100 kDa NMWCO Nanosep centrifugal ultr.

E assessment that aquatic viruses are extraordinarily diverse, but the majority

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