Um 99.3 0.0 0.1 3.9 0.2 103.6456C 99.3 0.0 0.1 3.8 0.2 103.5506C 99.3 0.0 0.2 3.9 0.2 103.5doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.tChaperone Activity of GreAFigure 5. Enhanced resistance of the GreA-overexpressing strain to environmental stresses. (A) GreA overexpression results in enhanced heat shock survival. The IPTG-induced GreA-overexpressing strain and the control strain were both challenged by heat shock at 48uC. The viability of cells was estimated by counting the number of surviving cells 1676428 on the plates. (B) GreA overexpression confers the host strain with enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The GreAoverexpressing strain and the control strain were both challenged with 5 mM H2O2 after induction with IPTG for 1 h. Surviving cells on the plates were calculated to estimate the survival rate. (C) GreA expression suppresses cellular aggregation. The IPTG-induced strains were heat shocked at 48uC for 0 min or 40 min, and the cellular aggregates 15481974 were isolated and qualified. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.gFigure 6. Effect of greA/greB double mutation on cellular aggregation. (A) The greA/greB double Tartrazine site mutant strain N6306 suffers extensive aggregation under heat shock. (B) GreA-expression in N6306 suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype. (C) GreA-expression in N6306 alleviates cellular aggregation under heat shock. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.gprotein aggregation and promotes reactivation of denatured proteins, which provide evidence that GreA also has chaperone activity. Although the activity of GreA is not so effective as DnaK, concerning the small molecular size (about 17 kD) and its main function as a transcription factor, we propose that the chaperone activity is notable.The crystal structure of GreA from E. coli, determined in 1995, revealed that the surface of the molecule is negatively charged uniformly, while the opposite surface has some hydrophobic patches. The ANS-binding experiment also confirmed the hydrophobic nature of the GreA protein. It has been previously suggested that GreA hydrophobic patches may act as a binding surface for interaction with the RNA polymerase complex. However, the hydrophobic patch also serves as a characteristic for some chaperone proteins [30?2], and we therefore JW-74 price reasoned that GreA may also utilize the hydrophobic patches for chaperone-like activity. Interestingly, as temperature was elevated, the hydrophobicity of GreA moderately increased while the secondary structure changed very slightly. Generally, the heatinduced hydrophobicity increase is usually associated with protein unfolding. However, at the relatively high temperature of 50uC, GreA maintains its ability to suppress the aggregation of substrateChaperone Activity of GreAproteins. We propose that because of the high hydrophilicity of GreA (negatively charged surface), a slight increase in the hydrophobicity may not be severe enough to result in GreA unfolding, rather, it may provide more interacting surfaces for interaction with client proteins. Distinct from many other molecular chaperones, the binding capacity of GreA to the denatured substrates is very weak. Indeed, no obvious chaperone-substrate complexes were detected. This characteristic is similar to that of E. coli proteins of the thioredoxin family, namely, Trx, and YbbN [33], which have been reported to promote the refolding of denatured substrates but do not preferentially bind unfolded proteins. Although little sequence homology was observed betwee.Um 99.3 0.0 0.1 3.9 0.2 103.6456C 99.3 0.0 0.1 3.8 0.2 103.5506C 99.3 0.0 0.2 3.9 0.2 103.5doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.tChaperone Activity of GreAFigure 5. Enhanced resistance of the GreA-overexpressing strain to environmental stresses. (A) GreA overexpression results in enhanced heat shock survival. The IPTG-induced GreA-overexpressing strain and the control strain were both challenged by heat shock at 48uC. The viability of cells was estimated by counting the number of surviving cells 1676428 on the plates. (B) GreA overexpression confers the host strain with enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The GreAoverexpressing strain and the control strain were both challenged with 5 mM H2O2 after induction with IPTG for 1 h. Surviving cells on the plates were calculated to estimate the survival rate. (C) GreA expression suppresses cellular aggregation. The IPTG-induced strains were heat shocked at 48uC for 0 min or 40 min, and the cellular aggregates 15481974 were isolated and qualified. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.gFigure 6. Effect of greA/greB double mutation on cellular aggregation. (A) The greA/greB double mutant strain N6306 suffers extensive aggregation under heat shock. (B) GreA-expression in N6306 suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype. (C) GreA-expression in N6306 alleviates cellular aggregation under heat shock. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.gprotein aggregation and promotes reactivation of denatured proteins, which provide evidence that GreA also has chaperone activity. Although the activity of GreA is not so effective as DnaK, concerning the small molecular size (about 17 kD) and its main function as a transcription factor, we propose that the chaperone activity is notable.The crystal structure of GreA from E. coli, determined in 1995, revealed that the surface of the molecule is negatively charged uniformly, while the opposite surface has some hydrophobic patches. The ANS-binding experiment also confirmed the hydrophobic nature of the GreA protein. It has been previously suggested that GreA hydrophobic patches may act as a binding surface for interaction with the RNA polymerase complex. However, the hydrophobic patch also serves as a characteristic for some chaperone proteins [30?2], and we therefore reasoned that GreA may also utilize the hydrophobic patches for chaperone-like activity. Interestingly, as temperature was elevated, the hydrophobicity of GreA moderately increased while the secondary structure changed very slightly. Generally, the heatinduced hydrophobicity increase is usually associated with protein unfolding. However, at the relatively high temperature of 50uC, GreA maintains its ability to suppress the aggregation of substrateChaperone Activity of GreAproteins. We propose that because of the high hydrophilicity of GreA (negatively charged surface), a slight increase in the hydrophobicity may not be severe enough to result in GreA unfolding, rather, it may provide more interacting surfaces for interaction with client proteins. Distinct from many other molecular chaperones, the binding capacity of GreA to the denatured substrates is very weak. Indeed, no obvious chaperone-substrate complexes were detected. This characteristic is similar to that of E. coli proteins of the thioredoxin family, namely, Trx, and YbbN [33], which have been reported to promote the refolding of denatured substrates but do not preferentially bind unfolded proteins. Although little sequence homology was observed betwee.

Um 99.3 0.0 0.1 3.9 0.2 103.6456C 99.3 0.0 0.1 3.8 0.2 103.5506C 99.3 0.0 0.2 3.9 0.2 103.5doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.tChaperone Activity of GreAFigure 5. Enhanced

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