E Plasmo1-F primera Plasmo2-R primera Plasprobeb Fal-F primera Falciprobeb Mal-F primera Malaprobea Ova-F primera Ovaprobea Viv-F primer Vivprobea S7 FwqPCRc S7 RvqPCRc Ribosomal protein S7 S7 FwPCRd S7 RvPCRdaSpecies Plasmodium spp Plasmodium spp Plasmodium spp P. falciparum P. falciparum P. malariae P. malariae P. ovale P. ovale P. vivax P.vivax Ribosomal protein S300 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 300 300GTTAAGGGAGTGAAGACGATCAGA AACCCAAAGACTTTGATTTCTCATAA VIC-TCGTAATCTTAACCATAAAC -MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGTGTTGGATGAAAGTGTTA A FAM-TCTAAAAGTCACCTCGAAAGA-MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGTGTTGGATGATAGAGTAA A FAM-CTATCTAAAAGAAACACTCAT-MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGTTTTGGATGAAAGATTTTT VIC-CGAAAGGAATTTTCTTATT-MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGCTTTGGATGAAAGATTTTA VIC-AGCAATCTAAGAATAAACTCCGAAGAG AAAATTCT- TAMRA 59-CATTCTGCCCAAACCGATG-39 39-AACGCGGTCTCTTCTGCTTG-59 25033180 59-GATGGTGGTCTGCTGGTTCT-39 39-GACACGGGAAGAGAATCGAA-Footenote: Primers and probe sequences are as previously MedChemExpress Pentagastrin published [7]. Probe sequence modified as previously published [26]. c Primers sequences are as previously published [27]. d Primers sequences are as designed in this study. e TAMRA, 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine; MGBNFQ, minor groove binding nonfluorescent quencher. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052719.ta bReal-Time PCR Detection of Plasmodium in MosquitoResults Mosquito Collection and Plasmodium Infection rates by ELISA-CSPA total of 1.830 An. gambiae s.l. and 1.234 members of the An. funestus group were collected in the field and analyzed by ELISACSP. Fifty An. gambiae s.s. and twenty An. funestus mosquitoes were found positive to P. falciparum, corresponding to a prevalence of infection of 2.7 and 1.62 respectively. In this study, 200 hundred specimens (100 An. gambiae s.s. and 100 An. funestus) were used in the evaluation of the real-time PCR assays. For An. gambiae, 50 Plasmodium infected and 50 randomly selected uninfected mosquitoes were included according to ELISA-CSP. Due to lower prevalence of P. falciparum infection among An. funestus mosquitoes, only 20 infected mosquitoes and 80 randomly selected negative were included.Table 2. Specific detection of Plasmodium DNA by real-time PCR in the artificial target mixtures.Probe FAM Plasmids Pf.Probe VIC MAL 0 0 0 18.2 24.66 33.45 Plasmo 18.74 23.91 33.16 17.86 23.52 32.05 OVA 0 0 0 18.83 24.66 33.FAL 18.15 24.05 33.84 0 0Pf. 105 23727046 Pf. 102 (Po/Pm). 107 (Po/Pm). 105 (Po/Pm).Design and Validation of the Real-time PCR AssaysThe quality of the DNA extracted was checked by spectrophotometric analysis at 260 nm and 280 nm respectively, and the absence of PCR inhibitors in the preparation was confirmed by buy Ergocalciferol amplification of the ribosomal protein S7 in all samples; means Ct values were 24.7262.62 for An. gambiae and 24.8461.5 for An. funestus. As part of the study, we first evaluated each detection system on a 10-fold dilution range of the corresponding standard (from 1.100 to 1.1010 copies). However, the optimal linear range of the external standard curves was observed from 1.101 to 1.1010 copies with PCR efficiencies all above 90 . Amplification of non-specific targets guided the combination of duplex assays. Evaluation of duplex assays for the simultaneous detection of Plasmodium spp in the same reaction was performed in plasmid mixing experiments. Results presented in Table 2 and figure 1 highlight substantial specificity and a lack of competition between the mixed oligonucleotides.Footnote: Validation of real-time PCR on artificial mixed targets. Plasmids constructs are: Pf,.E Plasmo1-F primera Plasmo2-R primera Plasprobeb Fal-F primera Falciprobeb Mal-F primera Malaprobea Ova-F primera Ovaprobea Viv-F primer Vivprobea S7 FwqPCRc S7 RvqPCRc Ribosomal protein S7 S7 FwPCRd S7 RvPCRdaSpecies Plasmodium spp Plasmodium spp Plasmodium spp P. falciparum P. falciparum P. malariae P. malariae P. ovale P. ovale P. vivax P.vivax Ribosomal protein S300 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 300 300GTTAAGGGAGTGAAGACGATCAGA AACCCAAAGACTTTGATTTCTCATAA VIC-TCGTAATCTTAACCATAAAC -MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGTGTTGGATGAAAGTGTTA A FAM-TCTAAAAGTCACCTCGAAAGA-MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGTGTTGGATGATAGAGTAA A FAM-CTATCTAAAAGAAACACTCAT-MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGTTTTGGATGAAAGATTTTT VIC-CGAAAGGAATTTTCTTATT-MGBNFQ CCGACTAGGCTTTGGATGAAAGATTTTA VIC-AGCAATCTAAGAATAAACTCCGAAGAG AAAATTCT- TAMRA 59-CATTCTGCCCAAACCGATG-39 39-AACGCGGTCTCTTCTGCTTG-59 25033180 59-GATGGTGGTCTGCTGGTTCT-39 39-GACACGGGAAGAGAATCGAA-Footenote: Primers and probe sequences are as previously published [7]. Probe sequence modified as previously published [26]. c Primers sequences are as previously published [27]. d Primers sequences are as designed in this study. e TAMRA, 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine; MGBNFQ, minor groove binding nonfluorescent quencher. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052719.ta bReal-Time PCR Detection of Plasmodium in MosquitoResults Mosquito Collection and Plasmodium Infection rates by ELISA-CSPA total of 1.830 An. gambiae s.l. and 1.234 members of the An. funestus group were collected in the field and analyzed by ELISACSP. Fifty An. gambiae s.s. and twenty An. funestus mosquitoes were found positive to P. falciparum, corresponding to a prevalence of infection of 2.7 and 1.62 respectively. In this study, 200 hundred specimens (100 An. gambiae s.s. and 100 An. funestus) were used in the evaluation of the real-time PCR assays. For An. gambiae, 50 Plasmodium infected and 50 randomly selected uninfected mosquitoes were included according to ELISA-CSP. Due to lower prevalence of P. falciparum infection among An. funestus mosquitoes, only 20 infected mosquitoes and 80 randomly selected negative were included.Table 2. Specific detection of Plasmodium DNA by real-time PCR in the artificial target mixtures.Probe FAM Plasmids Pf.Probe VIC MAL 0 0 0 18.2 24.66 33.45 Plasmo 18.74 23.91 33.16 17.86 23.52 32.05 OVA 0 0 0 18.83 24.66 33.FAL 18.15 24.05 33.84 0 0Pf. 105 23727046 Pf. 102 (Po/Pm). 107 (Po/Pm). 105 (Po/Pm).Design and Validation of the Real-time PCR AssaysThe quality of the DNA extracted was checked by spectrophotometric analysis at 260 nm and 280 nm respectively, and the absence of PCR inhibitors in the preparation was confirmed by amplification of the ribosomal protein S7 in all samples; means Ct values were 24.7262.62 for An. gambiae and 24.8461.5 for An. funestus. As part of the study, we first evaluated each detection system on a 10-fold dilution range of the corresponding standard (from 1.100 to 1.1010 copies). However, the optimal linear range of the external standard curves was observed from 1.101 to 1.1010 copies with PCR efficiencies all above 90 . Amplification of non-specific targets guided the combination of duplex assays. Evaluation of duplex assays for the simultaneous detection of Plasmodium spp in the same reaction was performed in plasmid mixing experiments. Results presented in Table 2 and figure 1 highlight substantial specificity and a lack of competition between the mixed oligonucleotides.Footnote: Validation of real-time PCR on artificial mixed targets. Plasmids constructs are: Pf,.

E Plasmo1-F primera Plasmo2-R primera Plasprobeb Fal-F primera Falciprobeb

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