Enhanced effector function. These features are found in mammals and birdsbut not in fish. Interestingly, such advanced immune features have also given rise to the requirement for a subset of specialised regulatory T cells which prevent immune damage to self tissues possibly required to regulate these enhanced effector functions [20]. It is interesting to note that CTLA-4 is utilized as a major effector molecule expressed by regulatory T cells [2]. Thus one might tentatively suggest that in order to operate 1676428 in a cell-extrinsic manner (required by regulatory T cells) CTLA-4 [18]internalization and intracellular trafficking may have been adapted in orderCTLA-4 TraffickingCTLA-4 TraffickingFigure 6. inhibitor recycling efficiency is regulated by the YVKM motif. A. CHO cells expressing WT human CTLA-4 YVKM or YEKM motif were labeled at 4uC with anti-CTLA-4 to label surface CTLA-4. Cells were warmed to 37uC for the time indicated. Cells were then placed on ice and the remaining surface CTLA-4 detected with inhibitor Alexa647 anti-mouse IgG and plotted over time. B. CHO cells expressing WT human CTLA-4 YVKM or a point mutant YEKM motif were labeled with mouse anti-CTLA-4 PE at 37uC to detect cycling CTLA-4. Recycling protein was detected with Alexa647 anti-mouse IgG at 37uC for the indicated time points. Recycling rates are plotted for the CTLA-4 variants normalised to the 4uC control. C. 25837696 Representative data comparing human and xenopus CTLA-4 recycling after 30 minutes is shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060903.gto facilitate efficient ligand removal and disposal from antigen presenting cells. In contrast, in species without the need for such specialised regulation, CTLA-4 may have been able to perform useful functions by competing for ligand binding whilst remaining predominantly at the cell surface as seen in fish CTLA-4.Materials and Methods DNA constructs and transfectantsFull-length CTLA-4 cDNA was cloned into a CMV expression vector pcDNA3.1 as previously described [21]. Chimeric proteins of human CTLA-4 with the cytoplasmic tail of chicken, xenopus or trout were synthesised by Genscript and cloned into the same vector. Point mutation of CTLA-4 YEKM and Human Trout VGNF CTLA-4 chimera were generated using the QuikChange Lightning Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Agilent Technologies).Cell culture and tissue cultureChinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, 10 FBS, 1 penicillin and streptomycin in a humidified 37uC/5 CO2 incubator and passaged by trypsinisation. CHO cell lines expressing different cDNA constructs were generated by electroporation (AMAXA). Cells expressing the CTLA-4 chimeras were selected using G418 (500 mg/ml) treatment and by cell sorting.unconjugated anti-CTLA-4 Ab (clone 11G1) for 1 hour. Cells were then washed 3 times in medium (4uC) and placed on ice. Surface receptors were labeled on ice by addition of Alexa555 conjugated anti-mouse IgG. Cells were then washed with 4uC medium and fixed in 100 Methanol at 220uC for 30 minutes. Internalised receptors were then detected by incubation with PBS containing Alexa488 conjugated anti-mouse IgG. For analysis of degradation, cells were incubated in medium alone or medium supplemented with CHX at 37uC for 3 hours. Cells were fixed with 3 PFA in PBS and permeabilised with PBS/sap. Total CTLA-4 was then detected by incubation with unconjugated anti-CTLA-4 Ab (clone 11G1) and Alexa488 conjugated anti-mouse IgG in PBS/sap. For analysis of CTL.Enhanced effector function. These features are found in mammals and birdsbut not in fish. Interestingly, such advanced immune features have also given rise to the requirement for a subset of specialised regulatory T cells which prevent immune damage to self tissues possibly required to regulate these enhanced effector functions [20]. It is interesting to note that CTLA-4 is utilized as a major effector molecule expressed by regulatory T cells [2]. Thus one might tentatively suggest that in order to operate 1676428 in a cell-extrinsic manner (required by regulatory T cells) CTLA-4 [18]internalization and intracellular trafficking may have been adapted in orderCTLA-4 TraffickingCTLA-4 TraffickingFigure 6. Recycling efficiency is regulated by the YVKM motif. A. CHO cells expressing WT human CTLA-4 YVKM or YEKM motif were labeled at 4uC with anti-CTLA-4 to label surface CTLA-4. Cells were warmed to 37uC for the time indicated. Cells were then placed on ice and the remaining surface CTLA-4 detected with Alexa647 anti-mouse IgG and plotted over time. B. CHO cells expressing WT human CTLA-4 YVKM or a point mutant YEKM motif were labeled with mouse anti-CTLA-4 PE at 37uC to detect cycling CTLA-4. Recycling protein was detected with Alexa647 anti-mouse IgG at 37uC for the indicated time points. Recycling rates are plotted for the CTLA-4 variants normalised to the 4uC control. C. 25837696 Representative data comparing human and xenopus CTLA-4 recycling after 30 minutes is shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060903.gto facilitate efficient ligand removal and disposal from antigen presenting cells. In contrast, in species without the need for such specialised regulation, CTLA-4 may have been able to perform useful functions by competing for ligand binding whilst remaining predominantly at the cell surface as seen in fish CTLA-4.Materials and Methods DNA constructs and transfectantsFull-length CTLA-4 cDNA was cloned into a CMV expression vector pcDNA3.1 as previously described [21]. Chimeric proteins of human CTLA-4 with the cytoplasmic tail of chicken, xenopus or trout were synthesised by Genscript and cloned into the same vector. Point mutation of CTLA-4 YEKM and Human Trout VGNF CTLA-4 chimera were generated using the QuikChange Lightning Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Agilent Technologies).Cell culture and tissue cultureChinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, 10 FBS, 1 penicillin and streptomycin in a humidified 37uC/5 CO2 incubator and passaged by trypsinisation. CHO cell lines expressing different cDNA constructs were generated by electroporation (AMAXA). Cells expressing the CTLA-4 chimeras were selected using G418 (500 mg/ml) treatment and by cell sorting.unconjugated anti-CTLA-4 Ab (clone 11G1) for 1 hour. Cells were then washed 3 times in medium (4uC) and placed on ice. Surface receptors were labeled on ice by addition of Alexa555 conjugated anti-mouse IgG. Cells were then washed with 4uC medium and fixed in 100 Methanol at 220uC for 30 minutes. Internalised receptors were then detected by incubation with PBS containing Alexa488 conjugated anti-mouse IgG. For analysis of degradation, cells were incubated in medium alone or medium supplemented with CHX at 37uC for 3 hours. Cells were fixed with 3 PFA in PBS and permeabilised with PBS/sap. Total CTLA-4 was then detected by incubation with unconjugated anti-CTLA-4 Ab (clone 11G1) and Alexa488 conjugated anti-mouse IgG in PBS/sap. For analysis of CTL.

Enhanced effector function. These features are found in mammals and birdsbut

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