The soluble fraction was assayed for enzymatic activity. (TIF)Supporting InformationFigure S1 Copurification of GroEL with natively purified MBP fusions on an affinity (IMAC) column. (A) Western blot using anti-GroEL antibody. Lane 1, His6-MBPG3PDH; lane 2, His6-MBP-DHFR; lane 3, His6-MBP; lane 4, purified GroEL. (B) SDS-PAGE analysis of the above samples (loading same as above). (TIF)The Mechanism of Solubility Enhancement by MBPAcknowledgmentsWe thank the staff of the Biophysics Resource in the Structural Biophysics Licochalcone A site Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory, for assistance with spectrofluorometry measurements. We are also grateful to the FNL Scientific Publications, Graphics and Media service for their help with the preparation of Figure 7. The Benzocaine site content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health andHuman Services, nor does the mention of trade names, commercial 1326631 products or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: SRK DSW. Performed the experiments: SRK. Analyzed the data: SRK DSW. Wrote the paper: SRK DSW.
Lysosomes are acidic organelles involved in several cellular functions, including degradation of macromolecules, repair of the plasma membrane, antigen presentation, recycling of cell surface receptors and apoptosis signaling [1]. Upon a variety of cell death stimuli, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is induced and this results in the release of lysosomal content to the cytosol. Previous studies have convincingly shown that the presence of lysosomal proteases, cathepsins, in the cytosol mediates apoptosis [2,3,4], implying that the integrity of the lysosomal membrane is of high importance for cell survival. The mechanism underlying LMP is still incompletely understood; however, a number of factors have been described to affect the stability of the lysosomal membrane, including the level of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) and cholesterol [5]. Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a complex neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the cholesterol transporting proteins NPC1 and NPC2. Normally, cholesterol is released from endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by the action of lysosomal acid lipase and is then transported, via the lysosomal NPC proteins, to the ER whereit serves as a sensor for cellular cholesterol homeostasis and may be esterified [6]. Nonfunctional NPC proteins disturb cholesterol efflux from the lysosomes. Thus, NPC-mutated cells are characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the endo-lysosomal system [7]. Other lipids, including sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, sphingosine and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) accumulate in the lysosomes in NPC as well [8,9]. At present there is no cure for NPC, and the goal for therapeutic treatment is to diminish the lipid load. Alleviation of the NPC phenotype can be obtained by several approaches, e.g., by decreasing cholesterol levels [10], inhibiting glycosphingolipid synthesis [11] or increasing lipid degradation [12]. b-Cyclodextrin compounds has been shown to correct cholesterol transport in NPC-defective cells [13] and substantially reduce neurodegeneration and increase lifespan in Npc12/2 mice [14]. Several substances have the ability to decrease lysosomal cholesterol; for example, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) down-regulates cholesterol accu.The soluble fraction was assayed for enzymatic activity. (TIF)Supporting InformationFigure S1 Copurification of GroEL with natively purified MBP fusions on an affinity (IMAC) column. (A) Western blot using anti-GroEL antibody. Lane 1, His6-MBPG3PDH; lane 2, His6-MBP-DHFR; lane 3, His6-MBP; lane 4, purified GroEL. (B) SDS-PAGE analysis of the above samples (loading same as above). (TIF)The Mechanism of Solubility Enhancement by MBPAcknowledgmentsWe thank the staff of the Biophysics Resource in the Structural Biophysics Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory, for assistance with spectrofluorometry measurements. We are also grateful to the FNL Scientific Publications, Graphics and Media service for their help with the preparation of Figure 7. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health andHuman Services, nor does the mention of trade names, commercial 1326631 products or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: SRK DSW. Performed the experiments: SRK. Analyzed the data: SRK DSW. Wrote the paper: SRK DSW.
Lysosomes are acidic organelles involved in several cellular functions, including degradation of macromolecules, repair of the plasma membrane, antigen presentation, recycling of cell surface receptors and apoptosis signaling [1]. Upon a variety of cell death stimuli, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is induced and this results in the release of lysosomal content to the cytosol. Previous studies have convincingly shown that the presence of lysosomal proteases, cathepsins, in the cytosol mediates apoptosis [2,3,4], implying that the integrity of the lysosomal membrane is of high importance for cell survival. The mechanism underlying LMP is still incompletely understood; however, a number of factors have been described to affect the stability of the lysosomal membrane, including the level of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) and cholesterol [5]. Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a complex neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the cholesterol transporting proteins NPC1 and NPC2. Normally, cholesterol is released from endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by the action of lysosomal acid lipase and is then transported, via the lysosomal NPC proteins, to the ER whereit serves as a sensor for cellular cholesterol homeostasis and may be esterified [6]. Nonfunctional NPC proteins disturb cholesterol efflux from the lysosomes. Thus, NPC-mutated cells are characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the endo-lysosomal system [7]. Other lipids, including sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, sphingosine and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) accumulate in the lysosomes in NPC as well [8,9]. At present there is no cure for NPC, and the goal for therapeutic treatment is to diminish the lipid load. Alleviation of the NPC phenotype can be obtained by several approaches, e.g., by decreasing cholesterol levels [10], inhibiting glycosphingolipid synthesis [11] or increasing lipid degradation [12]. b-Cyclodextrin compounds has been shown to correct cholesterol transport in NPC-defective cells [13] and substantially reduce neurodegeneration and increase lifespan in Npc12/2 mice [14]. Several substances have the ability to decrease lysosomal cholesterol; for example, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) down-regulates cholesterol accu.

The soluble fraction was assayed for enzymatic activity. (TIF)Supporting InformationFigure

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