Ich, St. Louis, MO), suspended in 200 ml/mouse IMJECT alum (Sudan I site Pierce, Rockford, IL). From days 27 to 23, mice were lightly anesthetized daily with isoflurane then challenged by intranasal instillation of 50 mg/mouse OVA in 50 ml sterile saline. Age-matched controls were mock-sensitized with alum only and challenged with saline. A schematic of this protocol is shown in Fig.1.Assessment of Airway Responsiveness to MethacholineSerial dilutions of acetyl b-methacholine (Sigma-Aldrich) in sterile normal saline were prepared fresh daily. To establish baseline total lung resistance, saline was delivered over a 10second period via an AeroNeb vibrating plate ultrasonic nebulizer, in series with the inspiratory limb of the flexiVent Y-tube. Following a recovery period of 5 seconds, 10 recordings of parameters of lung mechanics were then generated over a 2minute period. Each recording consisted of a 1.25-second measurement of total lung resistance followed by 2.75 seconds ofFigure 1. Schematic timeline of the OVA sensitization/challenge and RSV infection protocol. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OVA in alum at days 228 and 214. From 27 to 23 days, mice were challenged daily by intranasal (i.n.) OVA instillation. Animals were infected with RSV 3 days after the last OVA challenge (day 0). Airway responsiveness to methacholine (MCH) was measured at 2? days post-infection (d.p.i.). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046660.gRSV reverses AHR in OVA-Sensitized Micerecovery, then a 3-second quick-prime perturbation with a 5second recovery period. The mean value of all 10 total lung resistance measurements for that mouse was calculated. Mice were then exposed to increasing doses of methacholine (0.1, 1, 10, 20, and 50 mg/ml). Each methacholine dose was again delivered by nebulization over a 10-second period. 10 recordings of total lung resistance were generated at each methacholine dose, and analyzed as for saline measurements. A 15-second recovery period was interposed between each methacholine dose. Overall group mean values were then calculated for each timepoint or treatment at each methacholine dose.Results RSV Infection Reduces Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cell Counts in OVA-sensitized MiceLungs from control BALB/c mice (mock-sensitized with alum and challenged with saline) were histologically normal. BALF from these animals contained no eosinophils. In contrast, OVA sensitization and challenge of uninfected mice induced airway eosinophilia and moderate goblet cell hyperplasia (data not shown), as reported in prior studies [23]. This was accompanied by a very 101043-37-2 biological activity significant increase in BALF eosinophils, together with elevated alveolar macrophage and lymphocyte counts (Fig. 2A). However, no neutrophils were detected in BALF from either mock-sensitized or OVA-sensitized, uninfected mice. Intranasal infection of mice with 106 pfu/mouse of sucrose 1326631 gradient-purified RSV strain A2 (in 100 ml) did not alter goblet cell hyperplasia in OVA-sensitized mice (data not shown), but did trigger a decline in BALF total cell counts from 4? d.p.i. (Fig. 2B). This decline, which did not occur in mock-infected mice, primarily resulted from a progressive decrease in BALF eosinophil content (Fig. 2C). A similar reduction in BALF total cell and eosinophil numbers in OVA-sensitized mice was reported by other investigators at 6 and 15 days after RSV infection [9,11], although the underlying mechanism and biological significance of this effect remains unclear.Ich, St. Louis, MO), suspended in 200 ml/mouse IMJECT alum (Pierce, Rockford, IL). From days 27 to 23, mice were lightly anesthetized daily with isoflurane then challenged by intranasal instillation of 50 mg/mouse OVA in 50 ml sterile saline. Age-matched controls were mock-sensitized with alum only and challenged with saline. A schematic of this protocol is shown in Fig.1.Assessment of Airway Responsiveness to MethacholineSerial dilutions of acetyl b-methacholine (Sigma-Aldrich) in sterile normal saline were prepared fresh daily. To establish baseline total lung resistance, saline was delivered over a 10second period via an AeroNeb vibrating plate ultrasonic nebulizer, in series with the inspiratory limb of the flexiVent Y-tube. Following a recovery period of 5 seconds, 10 recordings of parameters of lung mechanics were then generated over a 2minute period. Each recording consisted of a 1.25-second measurement of total lung resistance followed by 2.75 seconds ofFigure 1. Schematic timeline of the OVA sensitization/challenge and RSV infection protocol. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OVA in alum at days 228 and 214. From 27 to 23 days, mice were challenged daily by intranasal (i.n.) OVA instillation. Animals were infected with RSV 3 days after the last OVA challenge (day 0). Airway responsiveness to methacholine (MCH) was measured at 2? days post-infection (d.p.i.). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046660.gRSV reverses AHR in OVA-Sensitized Micerecovery, then a 3-second quick-prime perturbation with a 5second recovery period. The mean value of all 10 total lung resistance measurements for that mouse was calculated. Mice were then exposed to increasing doses of methacholine (0.1, 1, 10, 20, and 50 mg/ml). Each methacholine dose was again delivered by nebulization over a 10-second period. 10 recordings of total lung resistance were generated at each methacholine dose, and analyzed as for saline measurements. A 15-second recovery period was interposed between each methacholine dose. Overall group mean values were then calculated for each timepoint or treatment at each methacholine dose.Results RSV Infection Reduces Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cell Counts in OVA-sensitized MiceLungs from control BALB/c mice (mock-sensitized with alum and challenged with saline) were histologically normal. BALF from these animals contained no eosinophils. In contrast, OVA sensitization and challenge of uninfected mice induced airway eosinophilia and moderate goblet cell hyperplasia (data not shown), as reported in prior studies [23]. This was accompanied by a very significant increase in BALF eosinophils, together with elevated alveolar macrophage and lymphocyte counts (Fig. 2A). However, no neutrophils were detected in BALF from either mock-sensitized or OVA-sensitized, uninfected mice. Intranasal infection of mice with 106 pfu/mouse of sucrose 1326631 gradient-purified RSV strain A2 (in 100 ml) did not alter goblet cell hyperplasia in OVA-sensitized mice (data not shown), but did trigger a decline in BALF total cell counts from 4? d.p.i. (Fig. 2B). This decline, which did not occur in mock-infected mice, primarily resulted from a progressive decrease in BALF eosinophil content (Fig. 2C). A similar reduction in BALF total cell and eosinophil numbers in OVA-sensitized mice was reported by other investigators at 6 and 15 days after RSV infection [9,11], although the underlying mechanism and biological significance of this effect remains unclear.

Ich, St. Louis, MO), suspended in 200 ml/mouse IMJECT alum (Pierce

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