Ce does not lead to significant changes in body weight, adiposity or food intake. Since HFD induces non-alcoholic fatty liver and causes hyperinsulinemia in mice, a remarkable observation is that after 16 weeks on HFD, Eng+/2 mice showed decreased hepatic triglyceride content and lower insulin levels compared with WT mice. Eng has emerged as a glycoprotein related with multiple Mirin biological actions including angiogenesis, vascular physiology,Figure 6. Hepatic glucose production in mice fed a high fat diet. mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase (A) and triglyceride (TG) content (B) in the liver of male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 12926553 weeks. 18S was used as an internal control. n = 6?. **p,0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceFigure 7. Levels of plasma metabolites and hormones in mice fed a high fat diet. Serum levels of insulin (A), glucose (B), TG (C), NEFAS (D), and cholesterol (E) in male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. n = 6?. **p,0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gpreeclampsia or cancer. Endoglin deficiency causes a decrease in NO synthesis and the subsequent endothelial dysfunction [2], a process usually associated with altered glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome [24,25]. However, to our knowledge, the potential role of Eng mediating energy homeostasis has been unexplored. Our current findings demonstrate that the heterozygous deficiency of Eng does not cause any important alteration in metabolic parameters affecting body weight regulation. Energy expenditure, locomotor activity, respiratory quotient or feeding behaviour were similar in WT and Eng+/2 mice. Importantly, the lack of metabolic phenotype was observed when mice were fed a standard diet or HFD, indicating that endogenous Eng does not seem to be an important player in these metabolic alterations even though mice were challenged to undergo a pathophysiological condition. Plasma soluble Eng levels have been reported to be positively correlated with basal glycemia in patients with diabetes and hypertension, and with glycated haemoglobin in all patients with diabetes [23]. Therefore, we also Lecirelin investigated the potential relevance of endogenous Eng in glucose metabolism. Our findings indicate that Eng+/2 mice fed a standard diet did not show relevant changes in insulin sensitivity in comparison to their control littermates. When mice were challenged with HFD, which increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance, we observed that insulin levels were significantly decreased when compared to WT mice fed under the same diet. However, insulin sensitivity wassimilar between Eng+/2 and WT mice (Figure 4). Overall, previous data obtained in 15755315 humans [23] and our current findings in rodents indicate that Eng seem to play an important role in the control of insulin levels, and heterozygous deficiency of Eng decreases HFDinduced hyperinsulinemia. It is important to highlight that this decrease in insulin levels is independent of changes in body weight or adiposity, suggesting that Eng might play a direct role on insulin synthesis and/or secretion. The PI3K/Akt pathway is one of the major downstream targets of the insulin pathway and is negatively regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) [34]. The activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibits the release of soluble Eng from endothelial cells [35]. Conversely, the inhibition o.Ce does not lead to significant changes in body weight, adiposity or food intake. Since HFD induces non-alcoholic fatty liver and causes hyperinsulinemia in mice, a remarkable observation is that after 16 weeks on HFD, Eng+/2 mice showed decreased hepatic triglyceride content and lower insulin levels compared with WT mice. Eng has emerged as a glycoprotein related with multiple biological actions including angiogenesis, vascular physiology,Figure 6. Hepatic glucose production in mice fed a high fat diet. mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase (A) and triglyceride (TG) content (B) in the liver of male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 12926553 weeks. 18S was used as an internal control. n = 6?. **p,0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceFigure 7. Levels of plasma metabolites and hormones in mice fed a high fat diet. Serum levels of insulin (A), glucose (B), TG (C), NEFAS (D), and cholesterol (E) in male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. n = 6?. **p,0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gpreeclampsia or cancer. Endoglin deficiency causes a decrease in NO synthesis and the subsequent endothelial dysfunction [2], a process usually associated with altered glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome [24,25]. However, to our knowledge, the potential role of Eng mediating energy homeostasis has been unexplored. Our current findings demonstrate that the heterozygous deficiency of Eng does not cause any important alteration in metabolic parameters affecting body weight regulation. Energy expenditure, locomotor activity, respiratory quotient or feeding behaviour were similar in WT and Eng+/2 mice. Importantly, the lack of metabolic phenotype was observed when mice were fed a standard diet or HFD, indicating that endogenous Eng does not seem to be an important player in these metabolic alterations even though mice were challenged to undergo a pathophysiological condition. Plasma soluble Eng levels have been reported to be positively correlated with basal glycemia in patients with diabetes and hypertension, and with glycated haemoglobin in all patients with diabetes [23]. Therefore, we also investigated the potential relevance of endogenous Eng in glucose metabolism. Our findings indicate that Eng+/2 mice fed a standard diet did not show relevant changes in insulin sensitivity in comparison to their control littermates. When mice were challenged with HFD, which increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance, we observed that insulin levels were significantly decreased when compared to WT mice fed under the same diet. However, insulin sensitivity wassimilar between Eng+/2 and WT mice (Figure 4). Overall, previous data obtained in 15755315 humans [23] and our current findings in rodents indicate that Eng seem to play an important role in the control of insulin levels, and heterozygous deficiency of Eng decreases HFDinduced hyperinsulinemia. It is important to highlight that this decrease in insulin levels is independent of changes in body weight or adiposity, suggesting that Eng might play a direct role on insulin synthesis and/or secretion. The PI3K/Akt pathway is one of the major downstream targets of the insulin pathway and is negatively regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) [34]. The activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibits the release of soluble Eng from endothelial cells [35]. Conversely, the inhibition o.

Ce does not lead to significant changes in body weight, adiposity

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