H accorded with the WST results. It could be due to non-specific cytotoxicity of control siRNA in MSTO211H cells but the mechanism underling is currently unknown. We also examined whether the combinatory effects of ZOL and CDDP were modulated by p53 expression levels (Fig. 4G and H). The p53-siRNA treatments nullified the synergistic or the additive effects detected in MSTO-211H and EHMES-10 cells. The CI values of the combination under the p53-siRNA treatments were more than 1, which indicated rather antagonistic actions. Activation of p53 was thus involved in the combinatory effects of ZOL and CDDP although it was not related with the ZOLmediated cytotoxicity.Down-regulated p53 action on cytotoxicity and on combination effectWe further investigated a possible involvement of p53 activation in the ZOL-mediated cytotoxicity by down-regulating p53 expression with siRNA. The p53-siRNA treatment markedly decreased p53 expression and the phosphorylation level (Fig. 4D). The down-regulated p53 however minimally affected the ZOLinduced cytotoxicity in MSTO-211H cells, at least in lower concentrations, and rather slightly enhanced the cytotoxicity inCombinatory effects of ZOL and Ad-pWe examined whether up-regulated p53 levels by ZOL increased p53-mediated cytotoxicity. Transduction of MSTO211H cells with Ad-p53 but not Ad-LacZ increased p53 expressions and induced the phosphorylation at Ser 15 (Fig. 5A). Moreover, Ad-p53 but not Ad-LacZ decreased the cell viability with a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 5B), demonstrating that induction of p53 produced cytotoxic effects in MSTO-211H cells. We then examined combinatory effects of Ad-p53 and ZOL at aZoledronate and Cisplatin for Triptorelin Mesothelioma via pFigure 4. ZOL-induced up-regulation of p53 and knockdown of the p53 expressions with siRNA. (A, B) CDDP-treated (20 mM) and ZOLtreated (48 h) cells were subjected to Western blot analysis and probed with antibodies as indicated. Actin was used as a loading control. (C) Cells were treated with CDDP and/or ZOL for 48 h at the indicated concentrations and the expression levels of phosphorylated p53 were examined. (D) Cells were transfected with p53-targeted siRNA (p53-siRNA) or non-targeted control siRNA (Control) for 24 h and then treated with ZOL (50 mM) forZoledronate and Cisplatin for Mesothelioma via p48 h. The lysate was subjected to Western blot analysis. (E) Cells were transfected with siRNA as indicted and were treated with ZOL for 3 days. The cell viabilities were measured with the WST assay and means of triplicated samples with the SD bars are shown. (F) Flow cytometrical analyses of MSTO-211H cells that were transfected with respective siRNA for 24 h and then treated with ZOL (50 mM) for 48 h. (G, H) Cells transfected with p53siRNA were treated with different doses of ZOL and CDDP as indicated for 3 days and the CI values based on the cell viabilities were calculated at different Fa points with CalcuSyn software. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060297.gconstant ratio between the agents (Fig. 5C). The combination produced additive, or PD168393 web possibly slightly synergistic, effects at above 0.15 Fa points. (Fig. 5D) and suggested that up-regulation of p53 by ZOL enhanced Ad-p53-mediated cytotoxicity by further activating the p53 pathways.DiscussionIn this study we demonstrated that ZOL alone and the combination with CDDP produced anti-tumor effects on mesothelioma. ZOL up-regulated p53 expression but the ZOLmediated cytotoxicity was scarcely dependent on the p53 i.H accorded with the WST results. It could be due to non-specific cytotoxicity of control siRNA in MSTO211H cells but the mechanism underling is currently unknown. We also examined whether the combinatory effects of ZOL and CDDP were modulated by p53 expression levels (Fig. 4G and H). The p53-siRNA treatments nullified the synergistic or the additive effects detected in MSTO-211H and EHMES-10 cells. The CI values of the combination under the p53-siRNA treatments were more than 1, which indicated rather antagonistic actions. Activation of p53 was thus involved in the combinatory effects of ZOL and CDDP although it was not related with the ZOLmediated cytotoxicity.Down-regulated p53 action on cytotoxicity and on combination effectWe further investigated a possible involvement of p53 activation in the ZOL-mediated cytotoxicity by down-regulating p53 expression with siRNA. The p53-siRNA treatment markedly decreased p53 expression and the phosphorylation level (Fig. 4D). The down-regulated p53 however minimally affected the ZOLinduced cytotoxicity in MSTO-211H cells, at least in lower concentrations, and rather slightly enhanced the cytotoxicity inCombinatory effects of ZOL and Ad-pWe examined whether up-regulated p53 levels by ZOL increased p53-mediated cytotoxicity. Transduction of MSTO211H cells with Ad-p53 but not Ad-LacZ increased p53 expressions and induced the phosphorylation at Ser 15 (Fig. 5A). Moreover, Ad-p53 but not Ad-LacZ decreased the cell viability with a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 5B), demonstrating that induction of p53 produced cytotoxic effects in MSTO-211H cells. We then examined combinatory effects of Ad-p53 and ZOL at aZoledronate and Cisplatin for Mesothelioma via pFigure 4. ZOL-induced up-regulation of p53 and knockdown of the p53 expressions with siRNA. (A, B) CDDP-treated (20 mM) and ZOLtreated (48 h) cells were subjected to Western blot analysis and probed with antibodies as indicated. Actin was used as a loading control. (C) Cells were treated with CDDP and/or ZOL for 48 h at the indicated concentrations and the expression levels of phosphorylated p53 were examined. (D) Cells were transfected with p53-targeted siRNA (p53-siRNA) or non-targeted control siRNA (Control) for 24 h and then treated with ZOL (50 mM) forZoledronate and Cisplatin for Mesothelioma via p48 h. The lysate was subjected to Western blot analysis. (E) Cells were transfected with siRNA as indicted and were treated with ZOL for 3 days. The cell viabilities were measured with the WST assay and means of triplicated samples with the SD bars are shown. (F) Flow cytometrical analyses of MSTO-211H cells that were transfected with respective siRNA for 24 h and then treated with ZOL (50 mM) for 48 h. (G, H) Cells transfected with p53siRNA were treated with different doses of ZOL and CDDP as indicated for 3 days and the CI values based on the cell viabilities were calculated at different Fa points with CalcuSyn software. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060297.gconstant ratio between the agents (Fig. 5C). The combination produced additive, or possibly slightly synergistic, effects at above 0.15 Fa points. (Fig. 5D) and suggested that up-regulation of p53 by ZOL enhanced Ad-p53-mediated cytotoxicity by further activating the p53 pathways.DiscussionIn this study we demonstrated that ZOL alone and the combination with CDDP produced anti-tumor effects on mesothelioma. ZOL up-regulated p53 expression but the ZOLmediated cytotoxicity was scarcely dependent on the p53 i.

H accorded with the WST results. It could be due to

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