Ctrodes was frequently reversed to avoid buildup of electrolysis byproducts. Myocytes 15900046 were displayed using an Ionoptix MyoCam camera and edge detection software (IonOptix Corp).HistologyTransverse 5 mm LV AZ-876 custom synthesis tissue sections were stained with Masson’s trichrome or haematoxylin and eosin. Myocardial fibrosis was visualized at 106 and quantified using Image J software (NIH, Bethesda, MD; http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/). Values are represented as the proportion of collagen normalized to the total solid tissue area to minimize any variation due to tissue separation.Measurement of Serum Thyroid HDAC-IN-3 web HormonesTerminal LV blood samples were collected and separated into serum aliquots by centrifugation and stored at 280uC. T3 and T4 levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits as previously described [20].Data AnalysisAll data are expressed as means 6 (S.D.). Diagnostics were conducted to verify assumption of normality and variance before applying the models. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Student’s T-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Values of p,0.05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical analysis was performed using Sigmastat V 3.5 (Aspire Software International; Ashburn, VA).EchocardiographyEchocardiography was performed in each animal at 1 month, 2 months, and then every two months until terminal experiments using a Vevo 660 high-resolution imaging system with a 25-MHz RMV-710 transducer (Visualsonics; Toronto, Canada) as previously described [21]. Briefly, hamsters were anesthetized using isoflurane (1.5 ) and two-dimensional echocardiograms were obtained from short-axis views of the left ventricle (LV) at the level of the papillary muscle tips. Two dimensional M-mode echocardiograms were used to measure LV dimensions in systole and diastole.Results Physical Data and TH LevelsPhysical data and serum TH levels are presented in Table 1. There was no difference in baseline body weight (BW) between control and TH treated hamsters [data not shown]. By one month,LV Myocyte/Chamber Function in HyperthyroidismTH treatment resulted in a significant and sustained BW increase [Table 1; 10 month data shown]. Treatment led to significant cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased heart weight (HW) and ,20 higher HW/BW ratio. Our findings of increased BW, HW, and HW/BW ratio are consistent with previous reports [19,26]. As expected, treated hamsters had significant elevations in serum T3 and T4 levels.Isolated Myocytes from Hyperthyroid Hamsters have Enhanced Mechanical FunctionDespite global cardiac impairment observed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics, treatment improved functional mechanics of individual isolated myocytes [Fig. 2]. Treatment was associated with significant improvement in ?dL/dT (maximum velocity of re-lengthening), peak shortening, time to peak shortening, and time to 90 re-lengthening. Peak Velocity of Shortening (+dL/dT) was not significantly affected. Treated hamsters had increased resting myocyte length.Prolonged Hyperthyroidism Causes Adverse Chamber Remodeling and Decline in LV Function as Assessed by EchocardiographyBy one month, TH treatment resulted in a significant elevation in resting HR. Tachycardia was sustained during the initial 8 months of treatment. Thereafter, HR declined to control levels [Fig. 1A]. By 4 months, there was significant depression of ejection fraction (EF) in the treated group. Between 6 and 10 months of treatment, there was a severe and progressive reduction (.Ctrodes was frequently reversed to avoid buildup of electrolysis byproducts. Myocytes 15900046 were displayed using an Ionoptix MyoCam camera and edge detection software (IonOptix Corp).HistologyTransverse 5 mm LV tissue sections were stained with Masson’s trichrome or haematoxylin and eosin. Myocardial fibrosis was visualized at 106 and quantified using Image J software (NIH, Bethesda, MD; http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/). Values are represented as the proportion of collagen normalized to the total solid tissue area to minimize any variation due to tissue separation.Measurement of Serum Thyroid HormonesTerminal LV blood samples were collected and separated into serum aliquots by centrifugation and stored at 280uC. T3 and T4 levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits as previously described [20].Data AnalysisAll data are expressed as means 6 (S.D.). Diagnostics were conducted to verify assumption of normality and variance before applying the models. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Student’s T-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Values of p,0.05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical analysis was performed using Sigmastat V 3.5 (Aspire Software International; Ashburn, VA).EchocardiographyEchocardiography was performed in each animal at 1 month, 2 months, and then every two months until terminal experiments using a Vevo 660 high-resolution imaging system with a 25-MHz RMV-710 transducer (Visualsonics; Toronto, Canada) as previously described [21]. Briefly, hamsters were anesthetized using isoflurane (1.5 ) and two-dimensional echocardiograms were obtained from short-axis views of the left ventricle (LV) at the level of the papillary muscle tips. Two dimensional M-mode echocardiograms were used to measure LV dimensions in systole and diastole.Results Physical Data and TH LevelsPhysical data and serum TH levels are presented in Table 1. There was no difference in baseline body weight (BW) between control and TH treated hamsters [data not shown]. By one month,LV Myocyte/Chamber Function in HyperthyroidismTH treatment resulted in a significant and sustained BW increase [Table 1; 10 month data shown]. Treatment led to significant cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased heart weight (HW) and ,20 higher HW/BW ratio. Our findings of increased BW, HW, and HW/BW ratio are consistent with previous reports [19,26]. As expected, treated hamsters had significant elevations in serum T3 and T4 levels.Isolated Myocytes from Hyperthyroid Hamsters have Enhanced Mechanical FunctionDespite global cardiac impairment observed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics, treatment improved functional mechanics of individual isolated myocytes [Fig. 2]. Treatment was associated with significant improvement in ?dL/dT (maximum velocity of re-lengthening), peak shortening, time to peak shortening, and time to 90 re-lengthening. Peak Velocity of Shortening (+dL/dT) was not significantly affected. Treated hamsters had increased resting myocyte length.Prolonged Hyperthyroidism Causes Adverse Chamber Remodeling and Decline in LV Function as Assessed by EchocardiographyBy one month, TH treatment resulted in a significant elevation in resting HR. Tachycardia was sustained during the initial 8 months of treatment. Thereafter, HR declined to control levels [Fig. 1A]. By 4 months, there was significant depression of ejection fraction (EF) in the treated group. Between 6 and 10 months of treatment, there was a severe and progressive reduction (.

Ctrodes was frequently reversed to avoid buildup of electrolysis byproducts. Myocytes

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