M pore size; Amersham Biosciences). Immunodetection was performed with either a monoclonal rabbit anti-human SAP antibody (1:5,000; Cat. no. 1793-1; Acid Yellow 23 Epitomics, Burlingame, CA) or a monoclonal mouse anti-a-tubulin (1:8,000; T8203; Sigma, Saint Louis, MO), followed by a secondary horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit or goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (1:10,000; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden), respectively. Expression levels of proteins were quantified by detection of chemiluminescence (SuperSignalH West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate; PIERCE) using a Fluor-S MultiImager with Quantity One software (Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA). Expression of SAP is presented as fold change in relation to tubulin levels and was calculated as mean values 6 SD from two independent experiments.TUNEL AssayIMR-32 cells were cultured in 8-well Permanox slides (Lab-Tek Brand Products, Nalge Nunc International, Naperville, IL) at a density 2610,000 cells/well as described previously [34]. Preaggregated TTR-A or TTR-D (20 mM), pre-incubated with or without 0? mM SAP, was incubated further with the cells for 12 h at 37uC in a humidified atmosphere of 5 (v/v) CO2 in air, and then TUNEL staining was performed according to the directions of the manufacturer (Roche Diagnostics).PARP AssayCell lysates were prepared from IMR-32 cells cultivated as described above for TUNEL assay, boiled in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris, pH 6.8, 2 w/v SDS, 2 v/v b-mercaptoethanol, and separated on 15 SDS-PAGE. The proteins were transferred to a PVDF-plus membrane (Micron Separation, Westboro, MA). The membrane was blocked with 5 (w/v) skimmed milk. Immunodetection was done with a polyclonal rabbit anti-PARP antibody that detected both 256373-96-3 manufacturer full-length and cleaved fragment of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (1:2,000; #9542, Cell Signalling; In Vitro, Stockholm, Sweden), followed by a secondary horseradish peroxidase-labeled donkey anti-rabbit IgG antibody (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden). The immunoreaction was detected with SuperSignalH Substrate (PIERCE, Rockford, IL) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Immunohistochemistry and Fluorescence MicroscopySemi-thin cryosections (10 mm) of heads from 2-week-old flies were fixed with 4 (w/v) formaldehyde in PBS, pH 7.3, and incubated in 10 (v/v) normal horse serum in blocking buffer (0.3 Triton X-100 in PBS). The primary antibodies used were mouse monoclonal anti-TTR (Mab 39?4, 1 mg/ml, [30,58]), rabbit monoclonal anti-SAP (1:200; Cat. no. 1793-1; Epitomics) or rabbit polyclonal anti-TTR (1:300, pre-adsorbed; A0002; DAKO). As secondary antibodies we used Rhodamine Red-XAffiniPure goat anti-mouse IgG or FITC-AffiniPure goat antirabbit IgG (1:250; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc., West Grove, PA). p-FTAA was used to stain for amyloid aggregates [39,40]. All specimens were mounted on slides with VECTASHIELD mounting medium containing DAPI to counterstain nuclei (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Fluorescence images were obtained with a Zeiss LSM 710 confocal microscope with Zen 2009 Light Edition software (Zeiss GmbH, Jena, Germany) and they were assembled using Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator CS4 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA).Transgenic Constructs and Drosophila StocksFor the SAP construct, the relevant part of the human APCS gene with the endogenous signal sequence, using a cDNA clone (I.M.A.G.E. ID 3934872; 1407003 Geneservice Ltd, Cambridge, UK, www.geneservice.co.uk) was amplified with HotMa.M pore size; Amersham Biosciences). Immunodetection was performed with either a monoclonal rabbit anti-human SAP antibody (1:5,000; Cat. no. 1793-1; Epitomics, Burlingame, CA) or a monoclonal mouse anti-a-tubulin (1:8,000; T8203; Sigma, Saint Louis, MO), followed by a secondary horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit or goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (1:10,000; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden), respectively. Expression levels of proteins were quantified by detection of chemiluminescence (SuperSignalH West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate; PIERCE) using a Fluor-S MultiImager with Quantity One software (Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA). Expression of SAP is presented as fold change in relation to tubulin levels and was calculated as mean values 6 SD from two independent experiments.TUNEL AssayIMR-32 cells were cultured in 8-well Permanox slides (Lab-Tek Brand Products, Nalge Nunc International, Naperville, IL) at a density 2610,000 cells/well as described previously [34]. Preaggregated TTR-A or TTR-D (20 mM), pre-incubated with or without 0? mM SAP, was incubated further with the cells for 12 h at 37uC in a humidified atmosphere of 5 (v/v) CO2 in air, and then TUNEL staining was performed according to the directions of the manufacturer (Roche Diagnostics).PARP AssayCell lysates were prepared from IMR-32 cells cultivated as described above for TUNEL assay, boiled in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris, pH 6.8, 2 w/v SDS, 2 v/v b-mercaptoethanol, and separated on 15 SDS-PAGE. The proteins were transferred to a PVDF-plus membrane (Micron Separation, Westboro, MA). The membrane was blocked with 5 (w/v) skimmed milk. Immunodetection was done with a polyclonal rabbit anti-PARP antibody that detected both full-length and cleaved fragment of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (1:2,000; #9542, Cell Signalling; In Vitro, Stockholm, Sweden), followed by a secondary horseradish peroxidase-labeled donkey anti-rabbit IgG antibody (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden). The immunoreaction was detected with SuperSignalH Substrate (PIERCE, Rockford, IL) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Immunohistochemistry and Fluorescence MicroscopySemi-thin cryosections (10 mm) of heads from 2-week-old flies were fixed with 4 (w/v) formaldehyde in PBS, pH 7.3, and incubated in 10 (v/v) normal horse serum in blocking buffer (0.3 Triton X-100 in PBS). The primary antibodies used were mouse monoclonal anti-TTR (Mab 39?4, 1 mg/ml, [30,58]), rabbit monoclonal anti-SAP (1:200; Cat. no. 1793-1; Epitomics) or rabbit polyclonal anti-TTR (1:300, pre-adsorbed; A0002; DAKO). As secondary antibodies we used Rhodamine Red-XAffiniPure goat anti-mouse IgG or FITC-AffiniPure goat antirabbit IgG (1:250; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc., West Grove, PA). p-FTAA was used to stain for amyloid aggregates [39,40]. All specimens were mounted on slides with VECTASHIELD mounting medium containing DAPI to counterstain nuclei (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Fluorescence images were obtained with a Zeiss LSM 710 confocal microscope with Zen 2009 Light Edition software (Zeiss GmbH, Jena, Germany) and they were assembled using Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator CS4 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA).Transgenic Constructs and Drosophila StocksFor the SAP construct, the relevant part of the human APCS gene with the endogenous signal sequence, using a cDNA clone (I.M.A.G.E. ID 3934872; 1407003 Geneservice Ltd, Cambridge, UK, www.geneservice.co.uk) was amplified with HotMa.

M pore size; Amersham Biosciences). Immunodetection was performed with either a

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