Ber observed in 76932-56-4 untreated cells (Fig. 9).Effect of b-endorphin on EAE CD4+ T Cell SubsetsDiscussionThis report examined mechanisms associated with EA-mediated reductions in the severity of EAE in rats, in addition to examining the effects of b-endorphin (an endogenous opioid) on diseasepresentation. Our group demonstrated that stimulation through the Zusanli acupoint attenuated EAE severity, nevertheless rats receiving non-Zusanli acupoint therapy were still suffering serious disease. We also proved that successive eletroacupuncture treatment at the Zusanli ST36 acupoints of rats could restore the balance to the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg T helper cell responses by stimulating the hypothalamus to increase ACTH production [20]. This is of importance since the hypothalamus is considered to be a key regulator of various physiological and pathophysiological processes including emotion, autonomic activity, and pain. b-endorphin is an important opioid present in brain, and electroacupuncture stimulation could serve as an analgesic function by activating ACTH and/or beta-endorphin release by the brain resulting in increased hormone release [8,23]. Gironi et al. demonstrated that in MS patients, b-endorphin concentrations were significantly lower than in healthy controls [1,24]. Our research has demonstrated that MBP immunized animals developed neuropathological signs of EAE. However, EA-treated rats had markedly reduced signs of disease and demyelination, potentially due to the inhibitory effects of naloxone (Fig. 1). Furthermore, electroacupuncture stimulation promoted b-endorphin production (Fig. 6, 7, 8). These results suggested that opioids released following treatment with EAInduced b-Endorphin Modulates Th Cell ResponsesFigure 9. Subtype changes in MBP68?6-specific lymphocytes following co-culture with b-endorphin and/or naloxone. Lymphocytes co-cultured with b-endorphin and/or naloxone for 72 h cells were collected and CD4, IFN-c, IL-4, IL-17, and FoxP3 expression levels analyzed by flow cytometry. Representative results from 3 separate experiments are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051573.greduced the severity of EAE. In addition, Panerai et al. demonstrated that administration of the opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone potentiated the development of EAE in an animal model 1317923 suggesting that an increase in the opioid betaendorphin levels might represent a mechanism resulting in the down-regulation of the immune response [25]. Many studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture possessed various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation, and improvement of sleep disturbance by increasing beta-endorphin production [26?9]. It has been suggested that MS (defined as an autoimmune disease) is affected by imbalances between Th1 and Th2 cells. Furthermore, b-endorphin may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by increasing cytokine production from the pituitary gland and lymphocytes [30]. A possible mechanism for the protective role of b-endorphin in the context of EAE may be due to changes in the cytokine expression profile. For example, BTZ-043 site bendorphin could activate IL-4 production in vitro via the activation of delta-opioid receptors [31]. b-endorphin has been known to shift the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response and naloxonemediated interference induced an increase in the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon gamma and a decrease in IL-4 levels [7]. Data presented in this report also suggested th.Ber observed in untreated cells (Fig. 9).Effect of b-endorphin on EAE CD4+ T Cell SubsetsDiscussionThis report examined mechanisms associated with EA-mediated reductions in the severity of EAE in rats, in addition to examining the effects of b-endorphin (an endogenous opioid) on diseasepresentation. Our group demonstrated that stimulation through the Zusanli acupoint attenuated EAE severity, nevertheless rats receiving non-Zusanli acupoint therapy were still suffering serious disease. We also proved that successive eletroacupuncture treatment at the Zusanli ST36 acupoints of rats could restore the balance to the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg T helper cell responses by stimulating the hypothalamus to increase ACTH production [20]. This is of importance since the hypothalamus is considered to be a key regulator of various physiological and pathophysiological processes including emotion, autonomic activity, and pain. b-endorphin is an important opioid present in brain, and electroacupuncture stimulation could serve as an analgesic function by activating ACTH and/or beta-endorphin release by the brain resulting in increased hormone release [8,23]. Gironi et al. demonstrated that in MS patients, b-endorphin concentrations were significantly lower than in healthy controls [1,24]. Our research has demonstrated that MBP immunized animals developed neuropathological signs of EAE. However, EA-treated rats had markedly reduced signs of disease and demyelination, potentially due to the inhibitory effects of naloxone (Fig. 1). Furthermore, electroacupuncture stimulation promoted b-endorphin production (Fig. 6, 7, 8). These results suggested that opioids released following treatment with EAInduced b-Endorphin Modulates Th Cell ResponsesFigure 9. Subtype changes in MBP68?6-specific lymphocytes following co-culture with b-endorphin and/or naloxone. Lymphocytes co-cultured with b-endorphin and/or naloxone for 72 h cells were collected and CD4, IFN-c, IL-4, IL-17, and FoxP3 expression levels analyzed by flow cytometry. Representative results from 3 separate experiments are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051573.greduced the severity of EAE. In addition, Panerai et al. demonstrated that administration of the opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone potentiated the development of EAE in an animal model 1317923 suggesting that an increase in the opioid betaendorphin levels might represent a mechanism resulting in the down-regulation of the immune response [25]. Many studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture possessed various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation, and improvement of sleep disturbance by increasing beta-endorphin production [26?9]. It has been suggested that MS (defined as an autoimmune disease) is affected by imbalances between Th1 and Th2 cells. Furthermore, b-endorphin may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by increasing cytokine production from the pituitary gland and lymphocytes [30]. A possible mechanism for the protective role of b-endorphin in the context of EAE may be due to changes in the cytokine expression profile. For example, bendorphin could activate IL-4 production in vitro via the activation of delta-opioid receptors [31]. b-endorphin has been known to shift the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response and naloxonemediated interference induced an increase in the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon gamma and a decrease in IL-4 levels [7]. Data presented in this report also suggested th.

Ber observed in untreated cells (Fig. 9).Effect of b-endorphin on EAE

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