FicationConsistent with the previous studies, participants were split into a secure (N = 67, 34.9 , CP 868596 supplier Female = 34) and insecure group (N = 125, 65.1 , Female = 68). The securely attached group had significantly lower MedChemExpress (-)-Blebbistatin anxiety and avoidance than the insecure group [anxiety, t(190) = 9.26, p < 0.001; avoidance, t(190) = 9.60, p < 0.001]. No main effects or interactions of gender were observed; thus it was removed from subsequent analyses. A 2 (outcome: hill, mom) ?2 (security: secure, insecure) ?2 (motion: left, right) ?2 (location: left hill, left mom) mixed model analysis of variance was conducted to determine if the two groups of participants differentially attended to the two outcomes. There was a significant main effect of outcome [F(1,184) = 13.47, p < 0.001, 2 = 0.07], and location [F(1,184) = 5.286, p < 0.023, p 2 = 0.03], and an interaction between outcome, motion, and p location [F(1,184) = 22.75, p < 0.001, 2 = 0.11]. p Of particular interest to our research question was the effect of attachment security on attention to the two outcomes. As predicted by an attentional bias account, we found a significant interaction between security and outcome [F(1,184) = 6.795, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.04; Figure 3]. Securely attached participants spent p significantly more time looking at the hill outcome (M = 1.89, SD = 0.77) than the social outcome (M = 1.42, SD = 0.63) whereas, the insecurely attached participants looked equally long at both the hill (M = 1.72, SD = 0.58) and social outcomes (M = 1.65, SD = 0.57). Finally, security and outcome interacted with location [F(1,184) = 6.22, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.03] such that, p securely attached participants showed a main effect of outcome [F(1,65) = 10.47, p = 0.002, 2 = 0.14] regardless of location pStudyStudy 3 presented participants with the same stimuli as Study 2, but instead of having them provide a written description, we presented two outcomes intended to represent the successful completion of either the hill or social goal. Because infants have limited verbal abilities, methodologies for assessing mental representations that do not require verbal responses have become an invaluable tool to developmental psychologists (see Oakes, 2010, for a comprehensive review of this methodology). Though visual attention varies greatly across the lifespan (Colombo, 2001), gaze duration has previously been used in adult populations to examine attention to, and expectations of, similarly social stimuli (e.g., Guastella et al., 2008). Further, although it is less common to utilize looking time methodologies to assess the social cognitive representations of adults, doing so allows for a more direct comparison to the developmental literature that motivated the current research. Following the logic of infant looking time designs (e.g., Spelke, 1985), we expect that participants who have an expectation regarding the ball’s goal will show greater attention to, and spend more time looking at, the outcome they find relatively unexpected.Method ParticipantsTwo-hundred and twenty-nine undergraduate students (126 female) received partial course credit for participation. TwoFrontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.orgOctober 2015 | Volume 6 | ArticleDunfield and JohnsonAttachment security and goal attributionparticipants process complex social interactions that afford a number of different construals, the ease with which an individual approaches and interacts with their social environment can bias the representation of social-e.FicationConsistent with the previous studies, participants were split into a secure (N = 67, 34.9 , Female = 34) and insecure group (N = 125, 65.1 , Female = 68). The securely attached group had significantly lower anxiety and avoidance than the insecure group [anxiety, t(190) = 9.26, p < 0.001; avoidance, t(190) = 9.60, p < 0.001]. No main effects or interactions of gender were observed; thus it was removed from subsequent analyses. A 2 (outcome: hill, mom) ?2 (security: secure, insecure) ?2 (motion: left, right) ?2 (location: left hill, left mom) mixed model analysis of variance was conducted to determine if the two groups of participants differentially attended to the two outcomes. There was a significant main effect of outcome [F(1,184) = 13.47, p < 0.001, 2 = 0.07], and location [F(1,184) = 5.286, p < 0.023, p 2 = 0.03], and an interaction between outcome, motion, and p location [F(1,184) = 22.75, p < 0.001, 2 = 0.11]. p Of particular interest to our research question was the effect of attachment security on attention to the two outcomes. As predicted by an attentional bias account, we found a significant interaction between security and outcome [F(1,184) = 6.795, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.04; Figure 3]. Securely attached participants spent p significantly more time looking at the hill outcome (M = 1.89, SD = 0.77) than the social outcome (M = 1.42, SD = 0.63) whereas, the insecurely attached participants looked equally long at both the hill (M = 1.72, SD = 0.58) and social outcomes (M = 1.65, SD = 0.57). Finally, security and outcome interacted with location [F(1,184) = 6.22, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.03] such that, p securely attached participants showed a main effect of outcome [F(1,65) = 10.47, p = 0.002, 2 = 0.14] regardless of location pStudyStudy 3 presented participants with the same stimuli as Study 2, but instead of having them provide a written description, we presented two outcomes intended to represent the successful completion of either the hill or social goal. Because infants have limited verbal abilities, methodologies for assessing mental representations that do not require verbal responses have become an invaluable tool to developmental psychologists (see Oakes, 2010, for a comprehensive review of this methodology). Though visual attention varies greatly across the lifespan (Colombo, 2001), gaze duration has previously been used in adult populations to examine attention to, and expectations of, similarly social stimuli (e.g., Guastella et al., 2008). Further, although it is less common to utilize looking time methodologies to assess the social cognitive representations of adults, doing so allows for a more direct comparison to the developmental literature that motivated the current research. Following the logic of infant looking time designs (e.g., Spelke, 1985), we expect that participants who have an expectation regarding the ball’s goal will show greater attention to, and spend more time looking at, the outcome they find relatively unexpected.Method ParticipantsTwo-hundred and twenty-nine undergraduate students (126 female) received partial course credit for participation. TwoFrontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.orgOctober 2015 | Volume 6 | ArticleDunfield and JohnsonAttachment security and goal attributionparticipants process complex social interactions that afford a number of different construals, the ease with which an individual approaches and interacts with their social environment can bias the representation of social-e.

FicationConsistent with the previous studies, participants were split into a secure

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