Macroscopically on the culture membrane after 48 hours, provided 15?8 day embryos were used as donors (Table 1). These agglomerates contracted to approximately 2 mm diameter by 72 hours as the two cellular components coalesced (Fig. 2A) with a translucent outer layer enclosing each agglomerate (Fig. 2B). Microscopic examination of fixed H E stained sections revealed that agglomerates were circumscribed by a well organized layer of uniformly oriented columnar Madecassoside site epithelial cells. Associated with this were subepithelial accumulations of basophilic cells with lymphocytic morphology (Fig. 2C). Other cells with lymphocytic morphology typically formed a corona on the surrounding membrane. However, these MedChemExpress MK8931 extra-agglomerate cells were not evident at 24 hours of incubation. The spreading out/translocation of cells on the membrane was observable at 48 hours and from 72 hours onwards, the rate of migration increased markedly as evidenced by the presence of a high frequency of cells surrounding the agglomerate (Fig. 3). Hence, we recognize these cells as emigrants migrating out from the agglomerate.Proliferation of emigrant cellsThe proliferation indices of the cell populations are shown in Table 2. A higher rate of proliferation was detected in the emigrant cells, as indicated by the proliferation index (3.260.8), in comparison with both the pre-cultivation mixture and the cell suspension resulting from agglomerate disruption. In the CFSE proliferation assay, only splenocytes isolated from embryonic spleen were stained and incorporated into the agglomerate culture and splenocyte monolayer culture. After 48 hours of incubation, the agglomerate culture showed proliferation in both agglomerate and emigrant cells. The highest proliferation rate was observed in the emigrant cell population after 72 hours of incubation showing 4 cycles of division (Fig. 4). At this time point, the emigrant cells showed a higher total proliferation rate in the third and fourth generation of daughter cells (15.1363.4 ) than at the previous time point (12.5462.8 ). In the agglomerate and the splenocyte monolayer culture, the replication stopped after 2 cycles of division, thus third and fourth generation of daughter cells were not observed. This result obtained by the CFSE method is consistent with that of the BrdU assay which also showed a higherTable 4. Detection of AID gene using SYBR Green I real time PCR.SamplesAmplification of SYBR Green I real time PCR, Cq values AID gene 28 sRNA 17.13 16.93 17.14 17.30 16.81 16.65 17.19 16.71 16.63 Not detectableBursa e18 Bursa e19 Bursa e20 Bursa e21 Agglomerate 24 h Agglomerate 48 h Agglomerate 72 h Emigrant cells 48 h Emigrant cells 72 h No template control25.32 25.29 25.22 25.06 32.14 29.86 29.72 29.67 29.65 -28S RNA was used as positive control. Detection of both AID gene and 28S RNA were carried out simultaneously in real time PCR. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049188.tAn In Vitro System Representing the Chicken GALTFigure 6. Electron micrograph of agglomerate infected with NDV virus strain AF2240. (A) Agglomerate infected for 24 hours. Arrows indicate spherical virus particles in vesicles and cytoplasm of the cells. (B) 50006magnification of NDV particles. Note spherical particles 20?8 nm in diameter detected in the agglomerate. (C) Note virus particles in the mitochondria and damage to their structure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049188.gproliferation index in the emigrant cell population. The cultured splenocyte monolayer at 72 hour.Macroscopically on the culture membrane after 48 hours, provided 15?8 day embryos were used as donors (Table 1). These agglomerates contracted to approximately 2 mm diameter by 72 hours as the two cellular components coalesced (Fig. 2A) with a translucent outer layer enclosing each agglomerate (Fig. 2B). Microscopic examination of fixed H E stained sections revealed that agglomerates were circumscribed by a well organized layer of uniformly oriented columnar epithelial cells. Associated with this were subepithelial accumulations of basophilic cells with lymphocytic morphology (Fig. 2C). Other cells with lymphocytic morphology typically formed a corona on the surrounding membrane. However, these extra-agglomerate cells were not evident at 24 hours of incubation. The spreading out/translocation of cells on the membrane was observable at 48 hours and from 72 hours onwards, the rate of migration increased markedly as evidenced by the presence of a high frequency of cells surrounding the agglomerate (Fig. 3). Hence, we recognize these cells as emigrants migrating out from the agglomerate.Proliferation of emigrant cellsThe proliferation indices of the cell populations are shown in Table 2. A higher rate of proliferation was detected in the emigrant cells, as indicated by the proliferation index (3.260.8), in comparison with both the pre-cultivation mixture and the cell suspension resulting from agglomerate disruption. In the CFSE proliferation assay, only splenocytes isolated from embryonic spleen were stained and incorporated into the agglomerate culture and splenocyte monolayer culture. After 48 hours of incubation, the agglomerate culture showed proliferation in both agglomerate and emigrant cells. The highest proliferation rate was observed in the emigrant cell population after 72 hours of incubation showing 4 cycles of division (Fig. 4). At this time point, the emigrant cells showed a higher total proliferation rate in the third and fourth generation of daughter cells (15.1363.4 ) than at the previous time point (12.5462.8 ). In the agglomerate and the splenocyte monolayer culture, the replication stopped after 2 cycles of division, thus third and fourth generation of daughter cells were not observed. This result obtained by the CFSE method is consistent with that of the BrdU assay which also showed a higherTable 4. Detection of AID gene using SYBR Green I real time PCR.SamplesAmplification of SYBR Green I real time PCR, Cq values AID gene 28 sRNA 17.13 16.93 17.14 17.30 16.81 16.65 17.19 16.71 16.63 Not detectableBursa e18 Bursa e19 Bursa e20 Bursa e21 Agglomerate 24 h Agglomerate 48 h Agglomerate 72 h Emigrant cells 48 h Emigrant cells 72 h No template control25.32 25.29 25.22 25.06 32.14 29.86 29.72 29.67 29.65 -28S RNA was used as positive control. Detection of both AID gene and 28S RNA were carried out simultaneously in real time PCR. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049188.tAn In Vitro System Representing the Chicken GALTFigure 6. Electron micrograph of agglomerate infected with NDV virus strain AF2240. (A) Agglomerate infected for 24 hours. Arrows indicate spherical virus particles in vesicles and cytoplasm of the cells. (B) 50006magnification of NDV particles. Note spherical particles 20?8 nm in diameter detected in the agglomerate. (C) Note virus particles in the mitochondria and damage to their structure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049188.gproliferation index in the emigrant cell population. The cultured splenocyte monolayer at 72 hour.

Macroscopically on the culture membrane after 48 hours, provided 15?8 day embryos were

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