Fold increases are represented by white diamonds over an averaged logarithmic histogram

topo I species associated with chemical- or heat-induced necrosis has also been reported in Jurkat leukemia cells. Detection of the 45 kDa species does not appear to be dependent on necrosis in our study, as it was broadly detected in all of the NCI-60 cell lines examined as well as in a culture of H358 cells in which no necrosis was evident. The presence of this species may therefore be a manifestation of the malignant process, possibly an aberrant phosphorylation resulting from overexpression of CK2, a housekeeping kinase that can target serine 506 and is often expressed at higher levels in malignancy. Furthermore, this study raises a number of interesting questions that warrant further investigation, including the biological relevance of PS506, its role in malignancy, and the basis for its differential appearance in malignant versus normal tissue. Diabetic kidney disease, indicated by albuminuria and/or reduced glomerular filtration rate predict end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Due to its insidious nature and lack of overt PubMed ID: symptoms until the advanced stages, regular laboratory investigations are needed to detect DKD and its progression. Major international 1 / 11 PubMed ID: SUDOSCAN in Predicting Chronic Kidney Disease in Chinese study design, data collection, data analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: Pertaining to the SUDOSCAN which is a patented device,neither my co-authors or myself have any financial or non-financial competing interests related to this patency, and does not alter our adherence to all PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. Pertaining to receipt of funding from Merck Limited, myself have received research grant and travel grants and honoraria for speaking at a meeting sponsored by Merck Limited, and my coauthor Prof Juliana Chan has received research grant and travel grants and honoraria for speaking at meetings and for consultancy. Merck Limited has no role in the study design, collection of data, analysis and interpretation of data, paper writing or decision to submit for publication. The receipt of funding from Merck Limited does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. guidelines recommend screening for DKD on an annual basis by measuring serum creatinine and urine albumin excretion. With aggressive metabolic control and appropriate use of disease-modifying medications namely renin-angiotensin system blockers, DKD is highly treatable. Yet, many patients are not screened due to poor disease awareness, costs of tests and/or lack of infrastructure and personnel to support screening especially in low resource or busy clinic settings. Consequently, a reliable, convenient and non-invasive technology which can identify subjects at risk of DKD may add value to these detection and preventive strategies. SUDOSCAN is a novel technology that provides precise evaluation of sudomotor function through reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry. The technology enables measurement of electrochemical skin conductance based on reaction between sweat chlorides and stainless-steel electrodes when low direct-current voltage is applied. A further advantage of the SUDOSCAN is that measurements are unaffected by ambient heat or humidity. Sweat glands are 92-61-5 innervated by small unmyelinated sympathetic C nerve fibers and sudomotor dysfunction is known to occur during early stage of diabetes and pre-diabetes