Increased renal cyclooxygenase-2 activity has been linked to the hyper-infiltration of diabetes

eriments; P0.05. Efficiency of Tollip silencing with RNAi reagents used in was verified by Western blotting, with actin serving as a loading control. PubMed ID: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130818.g004 upon ligand stimulation, Tollip counteracts the activation of -catenin without affecting its stabilization. However, no changes in -catenin status were apparent in GW 501516 cost lysates of cells overexpressing Dvl2 or treated with LiCl, suggesting that Tollip can exert its inhibitory action at yet another step in the pathway, occurring after -catenin stabilization. Ligand-independent stabilization of -catenin leads to permanent activation of the Wnt pathway and is a common pathological mechanism of numerous diseases, including cancer. To test whether Tollip could inhibit constitutive Wnt signaling, we first overproduced a degradation-resistant -catenin mutant S33Y in HEK293 cells. Under these conditions, overexpression of Tollip inhibited, while its silencing potentiated the TCF/LEF reporter activity. These effects argued that Tollip can interfere with ligand-independent Wnt signaling. This conclusion was further supported by testing colorectal cancer cell lines in which canonical Wnt signaling is constitutively active due to mutations either in -catenin or in APC . Indeed, the levels of total and active -catenin were increased in these lines, compared to Wnt3a-treated HEK293 cells. In both lines, overexpression of Tollip inhibited the TCF/LEF reporter activity, with the strongest effects observed in better transfectable HCT116 cells. However, overproduced Tollip did not change the levels of total or active -catenin, arguing that it inhibits the pathway at a step downstream of -catenin stabilization. Overall, our results suggest that an inhibitory action of Tollip in Wnt signaling can be exerted at two steps of the pathway. In ligand-stimulated cells, Tollip lowers the pool of active -catenin without altering its total levels. Interestingly, in macrophages Tollip was reported to participate in the activation of GSK3. GSK3 inhibits Wnt signaling by promoting phosphorylation and degradation of -catenin. Therefore, Tollip could potentially impair activation of -catenin via increased GSK3 activity. In parallel, Tollip can also inhibit the Wnt pathway acting downstream of -catenin stabilization, as observed under conditions of ligand-independent, constitutive Wnt signaling. This could possibly involve regulation of nuclear activities of -catenin and its associated proteins by Tollip which can also localize to the cell nucleus. In general, our data support a widespread role of Tollip-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling, both ligand-induced and ligand-independent, in different cell types, including cancer cells. Consistently, decreased expression of Tollip was reported during oncogenic progression from normal colon mucosa to adenomas and carcinomas. Activation of canonical Wnt signaling is a well-documented pathological mechanism in PubMed ID: colon cancer and lower levels of an inhibitory protein such as Tollip could additionally contribute to this process. The function of Tollip in embryonic development of zebrafish In the adult, Wnt signaling drives gene expression to maintain stem cell homeostasis and when aberrant leads to carcinogenesis. However, the Wnt pathway controls also body patterning during early vertebrate development. To address whether Tollip-dependent regulation of Wnt signaling is evolutionarily conserved, we analyzed the developmental role of Tollip in zebrafish