The interaction with TRAF6 led us to hypothesize that TRAFD1 may be important for osteoclast function

loss by affecting anti-inflammatory and anti- angiogenic pathways. Discussion The current study shows proof-of-principle for targeted cell-based delivery of neurotropic factors, in this case, to the host RGC. In this scenario, hNPs that naturally hone into the inner retina layer, where the RGC cell bodies and nerve fibers lie, are programmed to secrete a factor of interest directly into the targeted sites. Our observations show that hNPs expressing IGF-TD penetrate the inner retinal layer and provide adequate neurotropic support to prevent glaucomatous RGC loss. Our proposed paradigm for cell-based therapy harbors intrinsic obstacles that need to be addressed and solved prior to initiating therapy, some of which have been addressed by this study. First, it is important to select a compatible cell line for targeted delivery. In our study, hNPs were a good choice because they spontaneously home to targeted tissue 16 / 24 Progenitor Cells Expressing IGF-1 on Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival Fig 7. Quantification of angiogenic and inflammatory mRNA signals under various experimental conditions. Expression of genes related with angiogenic pathways, cell apoptosis and inflammatory pathways are shown. Significant increases in mRNA for typical genes related to angiogenic and inflammatory pathways after microbead injection is shown. These signals are tapered in microbeadinjected eyes transplanted with hNPIGF-TD cells. IGF-1 component of the IGF-TD message can be detected in mice transplanted with hNPIGF-TD cells. Abbreviations: IGF-TD, transplanted hNPIGF-TD cells after microbead injection; TD, transplanted hNPTD cells after microbead injection. hNP, transplanted hNPs after microbead injection; SA, intravitreal saline injection after microbead injection; NO, intravitreal saline injection PubMed ID: and saline injection into the anterior chamber. High IOP, elevated intraocular pressure by microbead injection. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125695.g007 after intravitreal injection. Second, minimizing unwanted cell transformation. Cells require detailed characterized assuring that they do not transform and develop tumors. This has been an issue with induced pluripotent stem cells, which display high tendency to develop teratomas after transplantation. We have extensively characterized hNPs and found that they have a very slow doubling time in vitro and do not transform in vitro and in vivo. We were not able to develop teratomas or tumors after transplantation. Third, candidate cells should be easy to transfect or infect and be able to express the factor of choice for an extended Amezinium metilsulfate site period of time. Localized low-level delivery of the factor is preferable to avoid side effects in distant tissues. It is known that IGF-1 could 17 / 24 Progenitor Cells Expressing IGF-1 on Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival induce unwanted angiogenesis and retinal neovascularization. This effect may be minimized by low-level targeted delivery. For these experiments, we chose IGF-1 because it is a known and well-studied neurotropic factor. IGF-1 is primarily synthesized in the liver and plays an essential role in growth and development. IGF-1 is regarded as an important factor for regulation of cell growth and central nervous PubMed ID: system development. Studies have shown that IGF-1 and its receptor are able to stimulate growth in many different cell types and block apoptosis through providing proliferative signals. In vitro studies have shown that IGF-1 can significantly enhance proliferation and increa