Mined other makers of inflammation including the cytokines IL-1b, IL-

Mined other makers of inflammation including the cytokines IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a and found that like EMR, their expression was maximal 14 days after rAAV6:CMV-hPLAP administration, and thereafter subsided by 28 days (Fig. 2b). To further confirm activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, we examined Stat3, JNK and IKK-b phosphorylation. Lysates ofStatistical Finafloxacin AnalysisThe Student T-test was used to assess differences in one variable between two groups. One-Way ANOVA was used to assess differences in multiple groups, whilst the Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test was used for comparisons between groups. Data are presented as the mean6S.E.M.Reporter Genes Can Promote Inflammation in MuscleFigure 4. rAAV6 vector-mediated expression of GFP exerts a reduced inflammatory effect in skeletal muscle compared with expression of hPLAP. (a) rAAV6:CMV-GFP or “gene less” rAAV6:CMV-MCS vectors were injected into the TA muscles of mice at 16109 orReporter Genes Can Promote Inflammation in Musclegenomes. Muscles examined 14 and 28 days after injection of 16109 rAAV6:CMV-GFP vector genomes demonstrated strong transgene expression without evidence of cellular infiltration, or muscle breakdown. However inflammation was evident in muscles examined 28 days after receiving 161010 vg of rAAV6:CMV-GFP. (b-c) Expression of EMR, ITGAX, IL-1b and IL-6 was not different in muscles examined 14 or 28 days after receiving 16109 vg of rAAV6:CMV-GFP (compared with muscles receiving rAAV6:CMV-MCS) but was elevated in muscles examined 14 or 28 days after receiving 161010 vg of rAAV6:CMV-GFP. *, p,0.05 vs. control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051627.gmuscles injected with rAAV6:CMV-hPLAP exhibited increased phosphorylation of Stat3, JNK and IKK-b (Fig. 2c). The upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors is required to facilitate differentiation of newly forming myofibers during muscle regeneration, and their upregulation is therefore a marker of muscle remodeling and repair. Accordingly, we also confirmed that the inflammatory response induced by expression of hPLAP in muscle coincided with regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers as demonstrated by increased levels of MyoD at the gene level, and increased MEF-2 at the protein level. These changes also coincided with the induction of microRNA-206. This signaling HIV-RT inhibitor 1 circuitry has previously been elegantly demonstrated to regulate cellular differentiation [25,26] (Fig. 2d).rAAV6 Vector-mediated Expression of GFP Exerts a Reduced Inflammatory Effect in Skeletal Muscle Compared with Expression of hPLAPAs a means to identify a more suitable reporter transgene, we sought to examine the effect of expressing humanized Renilla GFP in muscles, by administering 16109 or 161010 rAAV6:CMV-GFP vectors to the TA muscles of mice. When rAAV6:CMV-GFP was administered at a dose of 16109 vector genomes, we found that significant GFP expression was achieved in transduced hind limb muscles, but that the architecture of murine muscles was preserved for at least 28 days (Fig. 4a). Only when we increased the dose of rAAV6:CMV-GFP administered by ten fold (161010 genomes) was significant muscle damage accompanied by cellular infiltration observed. In subsequent assessments of markers for macrophage infiltration and inflammation, we found no significant marker induction when muscles received 16109 rAAV6:CMV-GFP vector genomes (in contrast to the effects noted with an equivalent dose of rAAV6:CMV-hPLAP). However, when rAAV6:CMVGFP was administered at a dose o.Mined other makers of inflammation including the cytokines IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a and found that like EMR, their expression was maximal 14 days after rAAV6:CMV-hPLAP administration, and thereafter subsided by 28 days (Fig. 2b). To further confirm activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, we examined Stat3, JNK and IKK-b phosphorylation. Lysates ofStatistical AnalysisThe Student T-test was used to assess differences in one variable between two groups. One-Way ANOVA was used to assess differences in multiple groups, whilst the Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test was used for comparisons between groups. Data are presented as the mean6S.E.M.Reporter Genes Can Promote Inflammation in MuscleFigure 4. rAAV6 vector-mediated expression of GFP exerts a reduced inflammatory effect in skeletal muscle compared with expression of hPLAP. (a) rAAV6:CMV-GFP or “gene less” rAAV6:CMV-MCS vectors were injected into the TA muscles of mice at 16109 orReporter Genes Can Promote Inflammation in Musclegenomes. Muscles examined 14 and 28 days after injection of 16109 rAAV6:CMV-GFP vector genomes demonstrated strong transgene expression without evidence of cellular infiltration, or muscle breakdown. However inflammation was evident in muscles examined 28 days after receiving 161010 vg of rAAV6:CMV-GFP. (b-c) Expression of EMR, ITGAX, IL-1b and IL-6 was not different in muscles examined 14 or 28 days after receiving 16109 vg of rAAV6:CMV-GFP (compared with muscles receiving rAAV6:CMV-MCS) but was elevated in muscles examined 14 or 28 days after receiving 161010 vg of rAAV6:CMV-GFP. *, p,0.05 vs. control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051627.gmuscles injected with rAAV6:CMV-hPLAP exhibited increased phosphorylation of Stat3, JNK and IKK-b (Fig. 2c). The upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors is required to facilitate differentiation of newly forming myofibers during muscle regeneration, and their upregulation is therefore a marker of muscle remodeling and repair. Accordingly, we also confirmed that the inflammatory response induced by expression of hPLAP in muscle coincided with regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers as demonstrated by increased levels of MyoD at the gene level, and increased MEF-2 at the protein level. These changes also coincided with the induction of microRNA-206. This signaling circuitry has previously been elegantly demonstrated to regulate cellular differentiation [25,26] (Fig. 2d).rAAV6 Vector-mediated Expression of GFP Exerts a Reduced Inflammatory Effect in Skeletal Muscle Compared with Expression of hPLAPAs a means to identify a more suitable reporter transgene, we sought to examine the effect of expressing humanized Renilla GFP in muscles, by administering 16109 or 161010 rAAV6:CMV-GFP vectors to the TA muscles of mice. When rAAV6:CMV-GFP was administered at a dose of 16109 vector genomes, we found that significant GFP expression was achieved in transduced hind limb muscles, but that the architecture of murine muscles was preserved for at least 28 days (Fig. 4a). Only when we increased the dose of rAAV6:CMV-GFP administered by ten fold (161010 genomes) was significant muscle damage accompanied by cellular infiltration observed. In subsequent assessments of markers for macrophage infiltration and inflammation, we found no significant marker induction when muscles received 16109 rAAV6:CMV-GFP vector genomes (in contrast to the effects noted with an equivalent dose of rAAV6:CMV-hPLAP). However, when rAAV6:CMVGFP was administered at a dose o.