Al protein production indicates a basic beneficial effect on the CF

Al protein production indicates a basic beneficial effect on the CF expression machinery that also at least partly contributes to the increased fluorescence of sGFP and GNA1sGFP in the soluble protein fractions. However, an additional stabilizing effect of choline on the synthesized proteins is measured by the observed increased specific activity of GNA1. Accordingly, also the effect of L-arginine on sGFP fluorescence appeared to be cumulative based on higher expression as well as on better solubility. This is in AVP accordance with previous observations of better folding of GFP in presence of L-arginine [32]. Interestingly, L-arginine increased solubility of GNA1-sGFP but not its total expression or specific activity. Therefore, even basic beneficial effects of stabilizers on the CF expression machinery appear to be template dependent and might be determined by improved formation of e.g. specific translation initiation complexes. Choline and L-arginine as individual additives improved the CF production of soluble GNA1-sGFP for some 10?0 . Wetherefore analyzed whether beneficial compounds could have synergistic effects if added in a cocktail. Surprisingly, the combination of choline with L-arginine in correlated concentration screens was not cumulative and even some reduction in solubility was observed (data not shown). However, correlated screening of further stabilizer combinations identified a synergistic effect of choline with PEG 8,000, resulting in 50?0 increased fluorescent GNA1-sGFP production when a concentration range of 8?6 mM choline and 2? PEG 8,000 was used (Fig. 5B). This result demonstrates that effects of stabilizer combinations are hard to predict and underlines the need for a systematic screening approach. As a further target, the soluble CF expression of the halogenase domain of CurA was analyzed (Fig. 6). The reactions were supplemented with either 10 mM choline, 10 mM L-arginine or 6 D-trehalose and the protein in the get ML 281 supernatant was quantified after the reaction by immunoblotting. In accordance to the results obtained with sGFP, the addition of L-arginine and choline again resulted into 8 and 25 increased soluble expression, while the presence of D-trehalose was inhibitory.ConclusionsSmall molecules belonging to different groups of natural chemical chaperones can be added into CF expression reactions and acting as general or specific stabilizers. This work has defined the working ranges in CF expression systems for a representative variety of the most commonly employed chemical chaperones. The tolerated concentrations of the supplied chemicals by the CF system are different from those reported from living organisms and a number of compounds tolerated in vivo became rapidly inhibitory to the CF expression machinery. As most promising stabilizing agents for the analyzed proteins we could define ethanol, PEG derivatives, amino acids and choline. However, additional polyols and polyions are also tolerated at relatively high concentrations and might therefore be useful in expression approaches with other target proteins. We could show that stabilizing effects can depend on the nature of the target protein as well as on the combination of several additives. Modes of action of the analyzed stabilizers include increased expression, better solubility as well as improved stability and could be exclusive or cumulative. We therefore propose and have established an empirical screening approach in order to define the optimal c.Al protein production indicates a basic beneficial effect on the CF expression machinery that also at least partly contributes to the increased fluorescence of sGFP and GNA1sGFP in the soluble protein fractions. However, an additional stabilizing effect of choline on the synthesized proteins is measured by the observed increased specific activity of GNA1. Accordingly, also the effect of L-arginine on sGFP fluorescence appeared to be cumulative based on higher expression as well as on better solubility. This is in accordance with previous observations of better folding of GFP in presence of L-arginine [32]. Interestingly, L-arginine increased solubility of GNA1-sGFP but not its total expression or specific activity. Therefore, even basic beneficial effects of stabilizers on the CF expression machinery appear to be template dependent and might be determined by improved formation of e.g. specific translation initiation complexes. Choline and L-arginine as individual additives improved the CF production of soluble GNA1-sGFP for some 10?0 . Wetherefore analyzed whether beneficial compounds could have synergistic effects if added in a cocktail. Surprisingly, the combination of choline with L-arginine in correlated concentration screens was not cumulative and even some reduction in solubility was observed (data not shown). However, correlated screening of further stabilizer combinations identified a synergistic effect of choline with PEG 8,000, resulting in 50?0 increased fluorescent GNA1-sGFP production when a concentration range of 8?6 mM choline and 2? PEG 8,000 was used (Fig. 5B). This result demonstrates that effects of stabilizer combinations are hard to predict and underlines the need for a systematic screening approach. As a further target, the soluble CF expression of the halogenase domain of CurA was analyzed (Fig. 6). The reactions were supplemented with either 10 mM choline, 10 mM L-arginine or 6 D-trehalose and the protein in the supernatant was quantified after the reaction by immunoblotting. In accordance to the results obtained with sGFP, the addition of L-arginine and choline again resulted into 8 and 25 increased soluble expression, while the presence of D-trehalose was inhibitory.ConclusionsSmall molecules belonging to different groups of natural chemical chaperones can be added into CF expression reactions and acting as general or specific stabilizers. This work has defined the working ranges in CF expression systems for a representative variety of the most commonly employed chemical chaperones. The tolerated concentrations of the supplied chemicals by the CF system are different from those reported from living organisms and a number of compounds tolerated in vivo became rapidly inhibitory to the CF expression machinery. As most promising stabilizing agents for the analyzed proteins we could define ethanol, PEG derivatives, amino acids and choline. However, additional polyols and polyions are also tolerated at relatively high concentrations and might therefore be useful in expression approaches with other target proteins. We could show that stabilizing effects can depend on the nature of the target protein as well as on the combination of several additives. Modes of action of the analyzed stabilizers include increased expression, better solubility as well as improved stability and could be exclusive or cumulative. We therefore propose and have established an empirical screening approach in order to define the optimal c.