Hould be the focus of future studies PAR4 is also coupled

Hould be the focus of future studies PAR4 is also coupled to G12/13 in platelets [7]. The activation of the G12/13 pathway by thrombin induces the activation of the small GTPase RhoA which regulates dense granule release and platelet shape change [7]. Our data show that the activation level of RhoA-GTP (Figure 6) is not affected in PAR32/2 platelets compared to wild type mouse platelets in response to thrombin (30?00 nM). These results demonstrate that PAR4 signaling through Gq, but not G12/13, is regulated by PAR3. The direct coupling of PAR4 to Gi in platelets has been attributed to indirect activation of Gi pathways via secreted ADP acting on its receptors [12]. In other studies, Akt activation downstream of PARs was G12/13 and Gi dependent, but independent of Gq [8]. In our studies, we have used Akt phosphorylation as a measure of Gi activation. There were no significant differences between wild type platelets and PAR32/2 platelets (see Figure 7). There is one report that Akt phosphorylation is downstream of phospholipase C (PLC) in human platelets [34]. Resendiz et al. showed that late Akt ?phosphorylation was dependent on PLC, Sermorelin calcium, PKC and PI3K in human platelets stimulated with thrombin (1 U/mL) or AYPGKF (0.25 mM). In our study we show significant differences in Ca2+ mobilization and PKC activation in response to thrombin concentrations ( 30 nM which corresponds to 4 U/mL) or AYPGKF concentrations ( 0.5 mM) in PAR32/2 compared to wild type mouse platelets. However, we do not see changes in Akt phosphorylation in our studies. It is possible that at high agonist concentrations for 3 minutes, the activation of Akt is driven primarily by Gi signaling rather than PLC. Taken together, our results show an increase Gq dependent signaling in PAR3 2/2 18055761 mice. In summary, when PAR4 is activated in the absence of PAR3 with high concentrations of thrombin ( 10 nM) or PAR4 activated peptide ( 0.5 mM), the Gq signaling pathway is increased. In order to explain the increased Ca2+ mobilization in PAR32/2 platelets, which affects the Gq-dependent signaling, but not G12/13-dependent signaling, we considered the following hypotheses. First, PAR3 can BIBS39 supplier regulate Gq signaling indirectlyFigure 7. Western blot analysis of Akt phosphorylation in mouse platelets. (A) The level of Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 in response to increasing concentrations of thrombin (1?00 nM) was determined by western blotting with phospho-Akt (Ser473) antibody. The membrane was re-probed for total Akt to demonstrate protein loading. The blots shown are from a representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantitation of Akt phosphorylation at (Ser 473) in response to thrombin is represented at the mean (6 SD, n = 3) (* p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055740.gthrough PAR4. The absence of PAR3 may induce a conformational change in PAR4, which increases the activity of Gq. However, PAR4 is also coupled to G12/13 and a conformational change in PAR4 would also affect the signaling downstream of G12/13. A global change in PAR4 activity by PAR3 is not consistent with our results since the G12/13 signaling pathway was not affected in PAR32/2 mice. A second hypothesis is that the expression or distribution of proteins such as RGS (Regulator of G-protein Signaling) is altered in the PAR32/2 mice. A recent study showed that preventing RGS/Spinophilin/and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 complex formation in platelet produced a gain in function and increase Gq-mediated signaling [35.Hould be the focus of future studies PAR4 is also coupled to G12/13 in platelets [7]. The activation of the G12/13 pathway by thrombin induces the activation of the small GTPase RhoA which regulates dense granule release and platelet shape change [7]. Our data show that the activation level of RhoA-GTP (Figure 6) is not affected in PAR32/2 platelets compared to wild type mouse platelets in response to thrombin (30?00 nM). These results demonstrate that PAR4 signaling through Gq, but not G12/13, is regulated by PAR3. The direct coupling of PAR4 to Gi in platelets has been attributed to indirect activation of Gi pathways via secreted ADP acting on its receptors [12]. In other studies, Akt activation downstream of PARs was G12/13 and Gi dependent, but independent of Gq [8]. In our studies, we have used Akt phosphorylation as a measure of Gi activation. There were no significant differences between wild type platelets and PAR32/2 platelets (see Figure 7). There is one report that Akt phosphorylation is downstream of phospholipase C (PLC) in human platelets [34]. Resendiz et al. showed that late Akt ?phosphorylation was dependent on PLC, calcium, PKC and PI3K in human platelets stimulated with thrombin (1 U/mL) or AYPGKF (0.25 mM). In our study we show significant differences in Ca2+ mobilization and PKC activation in response to thrombin concentrations ( 30 nM which corresponds to 4 U/mL) or AYPGKF concentrations ( 0.5 mM) in PAR32/2 compared to wild type mouse platelets. However, we do not see changes in Akt phosphorylation in our studies. It is possible that at high agonist concentrations for 3 minutes, the activation of Akt is driven primarily by Gi signaling rather than PLC. Taken together, our results show an increase Gq dependent signaling in PAR3 2/2 18055761 mice. In summary, when PAR4 is activated in the absence of PAR3 with high concentrations of thrombin ( 10 nM) or PAR4 activated peptide ( 0.5 mM), the Gq signaling pathway is increased. In order to explain the increased Ca2+ mobilization in PAR32/2 platelets, which affects the Gq-dependent signaling, but not G12/13-dependent signaling, we considered the following hypotheses. First, PAR3 can regulate Gq signaling indirectlyFigure 7. Western blot analysis of Akt phosphorylation in mouse platelets. (A) The level of Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 in response to increasing concentrations of thrombin (1?00 nM) was determined by western blotting with phospho-Akt (Ser473) antibody. The membrane was re-probed for total Akt to demonstrate protein loading. The blots shown are from a representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantitation of Akt phosphorylation at (Ser 473) in response to thrombin is represented at the mean (6 SD, n = 3) (* p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055740.gthrough PAR4. The absence of PAR3 may induce a conformational change in PAR4, which increases the activity of Gq. However, PAR4 is also coupled to G12/13 and a conformational change in PAR4 would also affect the signaling downstream of G12/13. A global change in PAR4 activity by PAR3 is not consistent with our results since the G12/13 signaling pathway was not affected in PAR32/2 mice. A second hypothesis is that the expression or distribution of proteins such as RGS (Regulator of G-protein Signaling) is altered in the PAR32/2 mice. A recent study showed that preventing RGS/Spinophilin/and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 complex formation in platelet produced a gain in function and increase Gq-mediated signaling [35.