Entered around rs13459062, which is located near 30 Mb on mouse chromosome

Entered around rs13459062, which is located near 30 Mb on mouse chromosome 2. Since Fatp4 (Slc27a4) maps at 29.5 Mb on chromosome 2, it lies within the critical region of the genome. Mouse Fatp4 and human FATP4 encode homologous proteins. Recent studies have Bexagliflozin identified mutations in FATP4 in human patients with IPS [11,28?1] and the mutations found so far are point mutations (summarized in Figure 5A). In order to look for defects in the Fatp4 Pluripotin manufacturer coding sequences in the pigskin mutants, segments of the mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from newborn mutant and wild-type skin (see Materials and Methods). Using an 15900046 exon 4 sense primer and an antisense primer from exon 9, wild-type skin gave an amplification band, while the mutant skin did not (data not shown). Using a senseResults New Mouse Mutant with Autosomal Recessive Congenital IchthyosisWithin a breeding colony of FVB mice, a few of the offspring from one breeder pair exhibited an abnormal skin phenotype at birth. Some pups were born with tight, smooth, shiny skin (Fig. 1A and B). The skin was stretched so tightly that the newborns were immobilized in a fetal position, unable to extend their body or their limbs. The characteristic appearance of the skin led us to describe the newborns as “pigskin” mutants. The mutant mice had a small jaw and protruding tongue (Fig. 1A). In some mutants, theA New Mouse Model for Congenital Ichthyosisprimer from exon 8 and an antisense primer from exon 11, the mutant RNA gave an amplification band that was about 120 bp smaller than wild-type (data not shown). Sequencing revealed that exon 9 was completely missing from the mutant transcript (Fig. 5B). The loss of exon 9 (127 bp) causes a shift in the coding frame so the pigskin transcript encodes a truncated protein with only 449 amino acids. Of these, only the first 400 amino acids are from wild-type Fatp4 (see Fig. 5B). The truncated protein will be missing the conserved VLACS/FATP domain. Based on the RTPCR results, we designed primers to amplify exon 9 and the flanking genomic sequences by direct PCR from genomic DNA. Sequencing of the amplified bands revealed a point mutation (an A to T transversion) in the consensus splice donor sequence at the 39end of exon 9 in the mutant genome (Fig. 5C). Since antibodies against the N-terminus of Fatp4 are not available, westerns were performed using a Fatp4 antibody generated against a peptide from the C-terminus of Fatp4 (Fig. 5D). No band was detected in extracts from mutant skin (Fig. 5D, lanes 2 and 4), verifying the 1326631 prediction that the full length Fatp4 protein is not synthesized by the pigskin mutants. Together, we conclude that this point mutation in Slc27a4 is the cause of the pigskin phenotype.staining was observed in the ventral follicles in the control embryos, but was partially lost on the ventral side of the mutants (Fig. 6D, arrow). At E16.5, both control and mutant embryos had no X-gal staining of intact dorsal and lateral skin (data not shown). Together, these data suggest that skin barrier development has been affected by E15.5 in the mutant embryos.DiscussionWe have identified and characterized a new mouse model for autosomal recessive, non-bullous, congenital ichthyosis. Mutant mice are born with a “tight skin” phenotype. The skin is stretched so tightly that the mice are unable to move their limbs. The mutant mice have a distinctive protruding tongue (Fig. 1A), are unable to suckle, and die shortly after birth. Histological analysis of the skin.Entered around rs13459062, which is located near 30 Mb on mouse chromosome 2. Since Fatp4 (Slc27a4) maps at 29.5 Mb on chromosome 2, it lies within the critical region of the genome. Mouse Fatp4 and human FATP4 encode homologous proteins. Recent studies have identified mutations in FATP4 in human patients with IPS [11,28?1] and the mutations found so far are point mutations (summarized in Figure 5A). In order to look for defects in the Fatp4 coding sequences in the pigskin mutants, segments of the mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from newborn mutant and wild-type skin (see Materials and Methods). Using an 15900046 exon 4 sense primer and an antisense primer from exon 9, wild-type skin gave an amplification band, while the mutant skin did not (data not shown). Using a senseResults New Mouse Mutant with Autosomal Recessive Congenital IchthyosisWithin a breeding colony of FVB mice, a few of the offspring from one breeder pair exhibited an abnormal skin phenotype at birth. Some pups were born with tight, smooth, shiny skin (Fig. 1A and B). The skin was stretched so tightly that the newborns were immobilized in a fetal position, unable to extend their body or their limbs. The characteristic appearance of the skin led us to describe the newborns as “pigskin” mutants. The mutant mice had a small jaw and protruding tongue (Fig. 1A). In some mutants, theA New Mouse Model for Congenital Ichthyosisprimer from exon 8 and an antisense primer from exon 11, the mutant RNA gave an amplification band that was about 120 bp smaller than wild-type (data not shown). Sequencing revealed that exon 9 was completely missing from the mutant transcript (Fig. 5B). The loss of exon 9 (127 bp) causes a shift in the coding frame so the pigskin transcript encodes a truncated protein with only 449 amino acids. Of these, only the first 400 amino acids are from wild-type Fatp4 (see Fig. 5B). The truncated protein will be missing the conserved VLACS/FATP domain. Based on the RTPCR results, we designed primers to amplify exon 9 and the flanking genomic sequences by direct PCR from genomic DNA. Sequencing of the amplified bands revealed a point mutation (an A to T transversion) in the consensus splice donor sequence at the 39end of exon 9 in the mutant genome (Fig. 5C). Since antibodies against the N-terminus of Fatp4 are not available, westerns were performed using a Fatp4 antibody generated against a peptide from the C-terminus of Fatp4 (Fig. 5D). No band was detected in extracts from mutant skin (Fig. 5D, lanes 2 and 4), verifying the 1326631 prediction that the full length Fatp4 protein is not synthesized by the pigskin mutants. Together, we conclude that this point mutation in Slc27a4 is the cause of the pigskin phenotype.staining was observed in the ventral follicles in the control embryos, but was partially lost on the ventral side of the mutants (Fig. 6D, arrow). At E16.5, both control and mutant embryos had no X-gal staining of intact dorsal and lateral skin (data not shown). Together, these data suggest that skin barrier development has been affected by E15.5 in the mutant embryos.DiscussionWe have identified and characterized a new mouse model for autosomal recessive, non-bullous, congenital ichthyosis. Mutant mice are born with a “tight skin” phenotype. The skin is stretched so tightly that the mice are unable to move their limbs. The mutant mice have a distinctive protruding tongue (Fig. 1A), are unable to suckle, and die shortly after birth. Histological analysis of the skin.