Putative site(s) of ROS generation and possibly the putative path

Putative site(s) of ROS generation and possibly the putative path(s) for ROS exit from PS II. In this communication we report the presence of natively oxidized amino acids in the vicinity of both QA and PheoD1 in PS II membranes isolated from field-grown spinach. These modifications are apparently normally present in the PS II isolated from field-grown material and our findings suggest that QA and PheoD1 may be sources of ROS under native growth conditions.The D1 and D2 AZ-876 site proteins are highly homologous between higher plants and cyanobacteria (.95 similarity). Consequently, we can directly map the modified residues observed to be modified in spinach onto the homologous residues in the T. vulcanus crystal structure. These results are shown in Fig. 2. The close proximity of oxidatively modified residues to QA and PheoD1 is evident in this illustration. Additionally, it is apparent that these residues appear to form two rather distinct groups. The first group appears associated with QA, consists of both D1 and D2 residues, and leads in a nearly continuous manner from the cofactor to the surface of the complex. The second group is associated with PheoD1, consists solely of D1 residues, also forming a near continuous grouping of modified residues. This group of residues, DprE1-IN-2 site however, does not reach the surface of the PS II complex.DiscussionIt must be stressed that this is an observational study of the oxidative modifications naturally occurring in PS II isolated from field grown-spinach. We cannot comment on the field conditions which lead to these oxidative modifications (high light intensity, high temperatures, nutrient limitations, presence of heavy metals, etc.) nor on the chemical identification of the ROS responsible. Studies addressing some of these questions will be the topic of additional communications. The oxidative modification of these D1 and D2 residues indicates that they have been modified by ROS. The proximity of these residues to QA (D1 residues: 239F, 241Q, 242E and the D2 residues: 238P, 239T, 242E, and 247M) and PheoD1 (D1 residues:130E, 133L and 135F) supports the hypothesis that these two cofactors are sites of ROS production on the reducing side of PS II. With respect to the residues in the vicinity of QA in Thermosynechococcus, it should be noted that there is a one amino acid deletion at 10457188 residue 10 in the D2 sequence with respect to the spinach sequence (Table 1). Consequently, in Thermosynechococcus: ?QA ?2.9A ?D2:246M ?D1:239F ?D1:241Q ?D1:242E ?D2:241E. These residues appear to form a near contiguous chain of oxidized residues leading from QA (Fig. 3). Two additional oxidized residues D2:237P and 238T may also be part of this oxidized residue complex but these are more distantly located. The mass spectra identifying these modified residues are shown in Figs. 1, S1 and S2. All of these residues are at least partially surface-exposed. D2:246M, however, exhibits very limited contact with the bulk solvent. It should be noted that the oxidized D2 residues 237P and 238 ??T are also in relatively close proximity to QB (9 A and 13 A, respectively, Fig. 3). While no additional oxidized residues in the immediate vicinity of QB were observed leading to the surfacelocated residues D2:237P and 238T, it is formally possible that oxidized residues are present in the region near QB, but that they escaped detection in our 26001275 experiments. With respect to the residues in close proximity to PheoD1, D1:130E in spinach and Chlamydomnas is rep.Putative site(s) of ROS generation and possibly the putative path(s) for ROS exit from PS II. In this communication we report the presence of natively oxidized amino acids in the vicinity of both QA and PheoD1 in PS II membranes isolated from field-grown spinach. These modifications are apparently normally present in the PS II isolated from field-grown material and our findings suggest that QA and PheoD1 may be sources of ROS under native growth conditions.The D1 and D2 proteins are highly homologous between higher plants and cyanobacteria (.95 similarity). Consequently, we can directly map the modified residues observed to be modified in spinach onto the homologous residues in the T. vulcanus crystal structure. These results are shown in Fig. 2. The close proximity of oxidatively modified residues to QA and PheoD1 is evident in this illustration. Additionally, it is apparent that these residues appear to form two rather distinct groups. The first group appears associated with QA, consists of both D1 and D2 residues, and leads in a nearly continuous manner from the cofactor to the surface of the complex. The second group is associated with PheoD1, consists solely of D1 residues, also forming a near continuous grouping of modified residues. This group of residues, however, does not reach the surface of the PS II complex.DiscussionIt must be stressed that this is an observational study of the oxidative modifications naturally occurring in PS II isolated from field grown-spinach. We cannot comment on the field conditions which lead to these oxidative modifications (high light intensity, high temperatures, nutrient limitations, presence of heavy metals, etc.) nor on the chemical identification of the ROS responsible. Studies addressing some of these questions will be the topic of additional communications. The oxidative modification of these D1 and D2 residues indicates that they have been modified by ROS. The proximity of these residues to QA (D1 residues: 239F, 241Q, 242E and the D2 residues: 238P, 239T, 242E, and 247M) and PheoD1 (D1 residues:130E, 133L and 135F) supports the hypothesis that these two cofactors are sites of ROS production on the reducing side of PS II. With respect to the residues in the vicinity of QA in Thermosynechococcus, it should be noted that there is a one amino acid deletion at 10457188 residue 10 in the D2 sequence with respect to the spinach sequence (Table 1). Consequently, in Thermosynechococcus: ?QA ?2.9A ?D2:246M ?D1:239F ?D1:241Q ?D1:242E ?D2:241E. These residues appear to form a near contiguous chain of oxidized residues leading from QA (Fig. 3). Two additional oxidized residues D2:237P and 238T may also be part of this oxidized residue complex but these are more distantly located. The mass spectra identifying these modified residues are shown in Figs. 1, S1 and S2. All of these residues are at least partially surface-exposed. D2:246M, however, exhibits very limited contact with the bulk solvent. It should be noted that the oxidized D2 residues 237P and 238 ??T are also in relatively close proximity to QB (9 A and 13 A, respectively, Fig. 3). While no additional oxidized residues in the immediate vicinity of QB were observed leading to the surfacelocated residues D2:237P and 238T, it is formally possible that oxidized residues are present in the region near QB, but that they escaped detection in our 26001275 experiments. With respect to the residues in close proximity to PheoD1, D1:130E in spinach and Chlamydomnas is rep.