Ing of dinoflagellate mitochondrial cox3 show that it is an unusual

Ing of dinoflagellate mitochondrial cox3 show that it is an unusual process on multiple scores. Unlike discontinuous group I/II intron mediated transsplicing, there is no evidence for the precursor transcripts directly contributing to the process of splicing. Thus evolution of this transsplicing process is more likely to have developed by the introduction of a splicing capability into these mitochondria, rather than gradual corruption of an existing splicing functionFigure 3. Model of cox3 trans-splicing mechanism. Putative splicing mechanism employing a guide molecule that unites the two cox3 precursor transcripts, and determines the length of the final splice product by inclusion of the buy I-BRD9 necessary number of A nucleotides from the oligoadenylated tail of cox3H1-6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056777.gsuch as organelle intron removal. Deep-branching dinoflagellates (e.g. Oxyrrhis and Hematodinium sp.) lack trans-splicing, although they share the same very reduced set of mitochondrial genes, so there is no evidence of existing splicing capacity in mitochondria early in this lineage [23,24]. Also unusual is that the splicing process in dinoflagellate mitochondria is imperfect. It does not always produce a seamless join between two complete gene exons, but leaves a footprint of multiple A nucleotides that has varied in length during divergence of different dinoflagellate taxa. While this is apparently tolerated in at least one position in the Cox3 gene, presumable this would not be viable in many other locations within the three proteins encoded in dinoflagellate mitochondria. Thus development of further trans-splicing events in this system might be constrained by the imperfect nature of this process. Only one other known system displays a comparably unusual form of RNA trans-splicing – the mitochondria of diplonemid protists that belong to the supergroup Euglenozoa [38,39]. Here, fragmented genes (up to nine pieces in the case of cox1) are transcribed as separate RNAs, ML240 trimmed down to only the coding sequences, and spliced together to form complete coding transcripts. A lack of flanking non-coding RNA suggests that splicing also relies on guide molecules, although in diplonemids these too are uncharacterized. Further, at one splice junction in cox1 a non-coded run of six uracils occurs in the mature transcript, although in this case RNA insertional editing is thought to be the mechanism, as occurs in trypanosomatid relatives of diplonemids [37,40]. While superficially similar to the case of dinoflagellate trans-splicing, the mechanism of 1516647 diplonemid trans-splicing is likely to be different to dinoflagellates, and these two groups are very distantly related to one another [41]. It is interesting to note, however, that both mitochondrial trans-splicing processes have developed in lineages that undergo trans-splicing of SLs onto their nucleus-encoded mRNAs, and also possess mitochondrial RNA editing machineries that are both presumed to entail RNA cleavage and re-ligation [18,42]. This raises the question of whether these novel forms of RNA trans-splicing might have developed under the influence of any of this existing machinery. In dinoflagellates, SL trans-splicing involves a SL transcript containing an exon/intron GU boundary, and a corresponding AG intron/exon boundary in the nascent protein mRNA. The splicing reaction is presumed to utilize the nuclear splicesomal complex [11]. The cox3H1-6 and cox3H7 transcripts lack flanking intron sequenc.Ing of dinoflagellate mitochondrial cox3 show that it is an unusual process on multiple scores. Unlike discontinuous group I/II intron mediated transsplicing, there is no evidence for the precursor transcripts directly contributing to the process of splicing. Thus evolution of this transsplicing process is more likely to have developed by the introduction of a splicing capability into these mitochondria, rather than gradual corruption of an existing splicing functionFigure 3. Model of cox3 trans-splicing mechanism. Putative splicing mechanism employing a guide molecule that unites the two cox3 precursor transcripts, and determines the length of the final splice product by inclusion of the necessary number of A nucleotides from the oligoadenylated tail of cox3H1-6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056777.gsuch as organelle intron removal. Deep-branching dinoflagellates (e.g. Oxyrrhis and Hematodinium sp.) lack trans-splicing, although they share the same very reduced set of mitochondrial genes, so there is no evidence of existing splicing capacity in mitochondria early in this lineage [23,24]. Also unusual is that the splicing process in dinoflagellate mitochondria is imperfect. It does not always produce a seamless join between two complete gene exons, but leaves a footprint of multiple A nucleotides that has varied in length during divergence of different dinoflagellate taxa. While this is apparently tolerated in at least one position in the Cox3 gene, presumable this would not be viable in many other locations within the three proteins encoded in dinoflagellate mitochondria. Thus development of further trans-splicing events in this system might be constrained by the imperfect nature of this process. Only one other known system displays a comparably unusual form of RNA trans-splicing – the mitochondria of diplonemid protists that belong to the supergroup Euglenozoa [38,39]. Here, fragmented genes (up to nine pieces in the case of cox1) are transcribed as separate RNAs, trimmed down to only the coding sequences, and spliced together to form complete coding transcripts. A lack of flanking non-coding RNA suggests that splicing also relies on guide molecules, although in diplonemids these too are uncharacterized. Further, at one splice junction in cox1 a non-coded run of six uracils occurs in the mature transcript, although in this case RNA insertional editing is thought to be the mechanism, as occurs in trypanosomatid relatives of diplonemids [37,40]. While superficially similar to the case of dinoflagellate trans-splicing, the mechanism of 1516647 diplonemid trans-splicing is likely to be different to dinoflagellates, and these two groups are very distantly related to one another [41]. It is interesting to note, however, that both mitochondrial trans-splicing processes have developed in lineages that undergo trans-splicing of SLs onto their nucleus-encoded mRNAs, and also possess mitochondrial RNA editing machineries that are both presumed to entail RNA cleavage and re-ligation [18,42]. This raises the question of whether these novel forms of RNA trans-splicing might have developed under the influence of any of this existing machinery. In dinoflagellates, SL trans-splicing involves a SL transcript containing an exon/intron GU boundary, and a corresponding AG intron/exon boundary in the nascent protein mRNA. The splicing reaction is presumed to utilize the nuclear splicesomal complex [11]. The cox3H1-6 and cox3H7 transcripts lack flanking intron sequenc.