D13 CCH4 fROC d13 CCH4 {ROC z(1{fROC )d13 CCH4 {SOR??where d13CCH4 = d13C of CH4 produced (or dissolved) in the planted rice microcosms at each sampling time; d13CCH4-ROC = d13C of CH4 formed from ROC (determination see below); d13CCH4-SOR = d13C of CH4 formed from SOM plus RS, i.e. the CH4 produced (or dissolved) in the unplanted soil treated with RS. The equation can be transformed into the following two equations for RS-treatment I and II, respectively:Figure 1. Values of d13C of dried rice plants obtained from planted microcosms without (control) and with addition of 13Clabeled RS. RS I and RS II denote the two treatments, the d13C of rice straw applied was 213.0 and 474.7 for RS I and RS II, respectively; means 6 standard deviation (SD) (n = 3). The differences between the treatments over time were examined using Duncan post hoc test of a one-way ANOVA. Different letters on the top of bars indicate significant difference (P,0.05) between the data. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049073.gfROCd13 CCH4 {I {d13 CCH4 {SOR{I d CCH4 {ROC {d13 CCH4 {SOR{I??fROCd13 CCH4 {II {d13 CCH4 {SOR{II d13 CCH4 {ROC {d13 CCH4 {SOR{II??(225.8 ) and of the plant biomass (Fig. 1), respectively; DCH4 designates the overall isotopic fractionation factors involved in CH4 production from these organic matters, in case of dissolved CH4 also those involved in oxidation and transfer of CH4 from soil to the atmosphere. Since the terms fSOM d13CSOM, fROC d13CROC and DCH4 should be the same in treatment I and II, combination of equations (5) and (6) and solving for fRS results in: d13 CCH4 {I {d13 CCH4 {II d13 CRS{I {d13 CRS{IIfRS Since fROC and d CCH4-ROC should be the same in treatment I and II, d13CCH4-ROC can be calculated by solving equations (2) and (3): d13 CCH4 {ROC13 13 13 13????d CCH4 {I d CCH4 {SOR{II {d CCH4 {II d CCH4 {SOR{I ??d CCH4 {I {d13 CCH4 {SOR{I {d13 CCH4 {II zd13 CCH4 {SOR{II Then, fROC can be calculated from either equation (2) or (3). The d13C values of the CH4 produced (or dissolved) in the two RS treatments are given by the following two mass balance equations:2. Fraction of CH4 production from RS PS-1145 supplier carbon (fRS).of which the d13C can be determined experimentally. Here, d13CCH4-I and d13CCH4-II were determined experimentally, and d13CRS-I and d13CRS-II were mixtures of labeled and unlabelled RS, of which the d13C were determined experimentally (see above). Finally, the fraction of CH4 production from SOM (fSOM) can be calculated, sincefRS zfROC zfSOM??Analogous equations are valid for the fractions of CO2 produced from ROC, SOM and RS in rice field soil.d13 CCH4 {I fRS d CRS{I zfSOM d CSOM zfROC d CROC zDCH13 13Statistical analysis??The significance of differences between treatments over time for various variables were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons (Duncan post hoc test) using SPSS 13.0. To test the significance of the differences between contributions to produced and dissolved CH4 or CO2, two-tailed independent t-tests were applied using Microsoft Excel 2007.d13 CCH4 {II fRS d13 CRS{II zfSOM d13 CSOM zfROC d13 CROC zDCH??with fRS, fSOM and fROC denote fractions of CH4 produced from RS, SOM and ROC, respectively; d13CRS-I and d13CRS-II are d13C of the rice straw carbon in treatment I (213.0 ) and II (474.7 ), respectively; d13CSOM and d13CROC are d13C of SOMResults 1. Stable carbon signature of rice plantsThe d13C of rice plants in the FD&C Yellow 5 site control and RS treatments were almost constant wit.D13 CCH4 fROC d13 CCH4 {ROC z(1{fROC )d13 CCH4 {SOR??where d13CCH4 = d13C of CH4 produced (or dissolved) in the planted rice microcosms at each sampling time; d13CCH4-ROC = d13C of CH4 formed from ROC (determination see below); d13CCH4-SOR = d13C of CH4 formed from SOM plus RS, i.e. the CH4 produced (or dissolved) in the unplanted soil treated with RS. The equation can be transformed into the following two equations for RS-treatment I and II, respectively:Figure 1. Values of d13C of dried rice plants obtained from planted microcosms without (control) and with addition of 13Clabeled RS. RS I and RS II denote the two treatments, the d13C of rice straw applied was 213.0 and 474.7 for RS I and RS II, respectively; means 6 standard deviation (SD) (n = 3). The differences between the treatments over time were examined using Duncan post hoc test of a one-way ANOVA. Different letters on the top of bars indicate significant difference (P,0.05) between the data. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049073.gfROCd13 CCH4 {I {d13 CCH4 {SOR{I d CCH4 {ROC {d13 CCH4 {SOR{I??fROCd13 CCH4 {II {d13 CCH4 {SOR{II d13 CCH4 {ROC {d13 CCH4 {SOR{II??(225.8 ) and of the plant biomass (Fig. 1), respectively; DCH4 designates the overall isotopic fractionation factors involved in CH4 production from these organic matters, in case of dissolved CH4 also those involved in oxidation and transfer of CH4 from soil to the atmosphere. Since the terms fSOM d13CSOM, fROC d13CROC and DCH4 should be the same in treatment I and II, combination of equations (5) and (6) and solving for fRS results in: d13 CCH4 {I {d13 CCH4 {II d13 CRS{I {d13 CRS{IIfRS Since fROC and d CCH4-ROC should be the same in treatment I and II, d13CCH4-ROC can be calculated by solving equations (2) and (3): d13 CCH4 {ROC13 13 13 13????d CCH4 {I d CCH4 {SOR{II {d CCH4 {II d CCH4 {SOR{I ??d CCH4 {I {d13 CCH4 {SOR{I {d13 CCH4 {II zd13 CCH4 {SOR{II Then, fROC can be calculated from either equation (2) or (3). The d13C values of the CH4 produced (or dissolved) in the two RS treatments are given by the following two mass balance equations:2. Fraction of CH4 production from RS carbon (fRS).of which the d13C can be determined experimentally. Here, d13CCH4-I and d13CCH4-II were determined experimentally, and d13CRS-I and d13CRS-II were mixtures of labeled and unlabelled RS, of which the d13C were determined experimentally (see above). Finally, the fraction of CH4 production from SOM (fSOM) can be calculated, sincefRS zfROC zfSOM??Analogous equations are valid for the fractions of CO2 produced from ROC, SOM and RS in rice field soil.d13 CCH4 {I fRS d CRS{I zfSOM d CSOM zfROC d CROC zDCH13 13Statistical analysis??The significance of differences between treatments over time for various variables were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons (Duncan post hoc test) using SPSS 13.0. To test the significance of the differences between contributions to produced and dissolved CH4 or CO2, two-tailed independent t-tests were applied using Microsoft Excel 2007.d13 CCH4 {II fRS d13 CRS{II zfSOM d13 CSOM zfROC d13 CROC zDCH??with fRS, fSOM and fROC denote fractions of CH4 produced from RS, SOM and ROC, respectively; d13CRS-I and d13CRS-II are d13C of the rice straw carbon in treatment I (213.0 ) and II (474.7 ), respectively; d13CSOM and d13CROC are d13C of SOMResults 1. Stable carbon signature of rice plantsThe d13C of rice plants in the control and RS treatments were almost constant wit.

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