Dra, caffeine, melatonin, milk thistle, omega three, kava, skullcap, valerian, grapefruit juice, glutamine, clover/nettles, parsley leaf, DHEA, DAA-1106 Coenzyme Q10, ginger, fish oil, garlic, grape seed, L-lysine NA Most had subjective benefit. Annual cost was 1170.32 euro.97 evening primrose/starflower oil, 24 marijuana, 16 St. John’s wort, 16 Gingko biloba, Udo’s oil, fish oil, black cohosh, echinacea, bonemeal, coenzyme Q-10 four Ginseng, four Ginkgo biloba, four glucosamine and chondroitin, 3 St. John’s wort, two black cohosh, 2 Echinacea, 2 evening primrose, two ephedra, 2 caffeine, 2 melatonin, two milk thistle, 2 omega three, 1 kava, 1 skullcap, 1 valerian, 1 grapefruit juice, 1 glutamine, 1 clover/nettles, 1 parsley leaf, 1 DHEA, 1 Coenzyme Q10, 1 ginger, 1 fish oil, 1 garlic, 1 grape seed, 1 L-lysineKaiboriboon et al., 2009 (only use of herbs and dietary supplements was studied) 56 (existing use)Partial epilepsy and Caucasian race. No association with gender, age, amount of education, earnings, duration of epilepsy or seizure frequency.six epilepsy (kava, skullcap, valerian, folic acid, vit. B6, vit. E, multivitamins, minerals); 35 general health; 13 physician’s recommendation; 13 increase bone density; ten increase power; ten increase immune system; 7 boost memory.9 sufferers reported adverse events that they attributed to these items. None reported aggravation of seizures. 88 of individuals spent much less than 50 a month and only five spent far more than one hundred.CAM–complementary and option medicine; NA–not out there; AED–anti-epileptic drug.Pharmaceuticals 2010, three Table two. Characteristics of all-natural merchandise made use of by sufferers with epilepsy in countries with western primarily based sort of medical system.Solution Key current medical uses Key adverse events interactions General estimated extent of use in PWE four Attainable effects in epilepsyPotential dangers for PWEBlack cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) [22,23,26-28 ] Black haw (Viburnum prunifolium) [23,26] Bonemeal Ameliorates menopausal symptomsPossible hepato-toxicityNRNRSpasmolytic, sedative, anti asthmatic Calcium supplementation (not employed lately) Stimulant, antinociceptive Anti arthritis arthralgia Ameliorates menopausal symptomsNR1NRNRPossible prion infectionNRCaffeine [28 ] Chondroitin [28 ] (Red) clover (Trifolium pretense) [28 ] Coenzyme Q10 [27,28 ]Sympathomimetic and GI symptoms GI symptoms, hypersensitivity, doable anticoagulation (increased INR with Warfarin) Possibly inhibits aromatase and extrahepatic CYP1A1, 1B1. May possibly boost INR when taken with Warfarin May well enhance threat of bleeding in Warfarin users1 1 1NR NR NRNR Seizures secondary to lead poisoning Connected with seizures. May interact with CBZ. NR NRAntioxidant, ameliorates CHF and neurodegenerative disorders1Cranberry [23,26]Prevents UTI, cardioprotector, anticancer, antioxidant Hormonal replacement therapy in elderly females and menDHEA [28 ]GI intolerance, weight gain, possibly thrombocytopenia and increase PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071534 in INR in mixture with Warfarin No adverse events. Induces CYP2B9May boost seizures in neurological mitochondrial ailments NRNR1NR No impact in animalsNR Inhibited P450 program in vitro, but not in vivo. Possibly linked with seizuresPharmaceuticals 2010, 3 Table two. Cont.Echinacea [23,24,26-28 ] Ephedra [24,28 ] Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) [23,24,26-28 ] Garlic [2224,26,28 ] Ginger [28 ] Enhances immune program functions Hypersensitivity, GI disturbance, hepatotoxicity with prolonged use; mild effect on CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 HTN,.