Ched rosettes borne above ground. Solitary axillary peduncles were mentioned to arise from near the base of these aerial stems, in comparison to P. subsect. Dichocladus, in which inflorescences are borne within the axis among paired dichotomous branchlets (Ruhland 1903). Actually, a comparable sympodial branching pattern is located in each groups, using the peduncles terminal on erect leafy shoots in the time of initiation, but overtopped by one particular or two lateral shoots early in development. The apparent distinction in habit is attributable towards the tendency in P. pilosus to kind prostrate mats, in comparison to the erect cushions formed by the additional rigid stems and leaves in P. subsect. Dichocladus. Nevertheless, the latter group differs sharply from the P. pilosus complex within a number of other characters (see essential beneath), so Paepalanthus subsect. Cryptanthella is provisionally recognized as PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20109258 a distinct taxon, using a new description and circumscription right here offered. The species of P. subsect. Cryptanthella formally treated right here are all Andean cushion plants. Nevertheless, P. pilosus is extremely equivalent to a robust long-pedunculate taxon from p amo Vaborbactam inside the Serrania de Perij Colombia, discussed under below Paepalanthus species A. Further affinities of your group are usually not clear. It was not sampled in current cladistic research (Andrade et al. 2010; Trovet al. 2013), which found a deep division of Paepalanthus (ca. 440 spp.) into two major clades not readily distinguished by morphology. Some affinity is usually noticed with particular long-stemmed species of P. sect. Polyactis Ruhland, as to branch architecture, straightforward style branches and tuberculate floral trichomes. These contain P. stuebelianus Ruhland and P. bongardii Kunth, each with a a lot more lax, scrambling habit. Even so Paepalanthus sect. Polyactis also emerged as deeply polyphyletic inside the analyses, and also the species most comparable to P. subsect. Cryptanthella weren’t sampled.Taxonomic therapy On account of the frequent confusion and misidentification of all of the Andean cushion plant taxa of Eriocaulaceae, a essential distinguishing main groups is offered.Plants cespitose or pulviniform, forming densely branched clumps with erect terminal shoots ca. 1-4 cm; inflorescences solitary, terminal, but quickly overtopped by a single or two sympodial branches; peduncle sheaths scarious, swollen at apex, typically splitting into two or 3 triangular segments; involucral bracts pale greenish to gold or blackish-brown, pilose, not or barely surpassing flowers. Trichomes on the involucral bract and sepal apices subacute to rounded at apex, tuberculate; apical trichome tuft of bracts and sepals comparatively quick, surpassing perianth tip by significantly less than 0.two mm. Pistillate flowers peripheral, the outer subtended by the broad inner bracts on the involucre; staminate flowers central or rarely (P. lodiculoides) the whole capitulum staminate; the inner flowers subtended by linear receptacular bracts, these generally with sub-cucullate strategies and carinate-clasping bases; pistillate flowers pedicellate; the petals generally longNancy Hensold / PhytoKeys 64: 17 (2016)pilose abaxially with tuberculate trichomes disposed in submarginal bands inside the upper 1/2 to 2/3 of petal, and also in two dense tufts just inside the upper margin either side with the apex and securing the stigma, the petal suggestions not involute soon after anthesis. Gynoecium with stigmas uncomplicated; stigmatic nectaries colorless to reddish or dark brown, normally having a distinctly broadened large-papillate upper rim, the papillae within the.