Because the fold change versus saline-treated animals. Enrichment is calculated as the IP versus input ratio and shows the abundance in the transcript within the targeted cell sort (IP) when in comparison to equal amounts of RNA in the whole testis (input). Sequences of the unique primer sets employed had been obtained from Primerbank (http://pga.mgh. harvard.edu/primerbank/)  and may be discovered in Table S6.Immunoprecipitation AssaysAfter remedies, testes have been homogenized and immunoprecipitation was performed as described previously  with minor modifications. Briefly, ten ul of anti-HA antibody (Covance) were coupled to 200 ul of beads in citrate-phosphate buffer pH five.0 and the antibody-bead complex was added towards the cleared homogenates and incubated overnight at 4uC. Immediately after incubation, beads have been washed in order COH29 higher salt buffer three occasions for five min, resuspended in RLT buffer (with beta-mercaptoethanol; Qiagen) and stored at 280uC until RNA extraction.LH, FSH and Testosterone Serum DeterminationAfter therapies, blood was obtained by cardiac puncture and allowed to clot in Microtainer serum separator tubes (BectonDickinson) for 1 h at RT. Serum was recovered by centrifugation and stored at 280uC for later evaluation. LH and FSH serum levels had been determined by RIA in the University of Virginia Center for Study in Reproduction Ligand Assay and Evaluation Core, and testosterone levels had been determined working with the Testosterone EIA kit (Cayman Chemical).MA-10 Cell CultureCells have been cultured as described in . 16105 cells/ml have been seeded onto gelatin-coated 6-well plates and allowed to attach for 2 days. For LH therapy, cells have been incubated in serum-free medium containing 1 BSA overnight ahead of the addition of purified human LH (0.two Units/ml). Cells had been lysed in SDS sample buffer (62.5 mM Tris, pH six.eight, two SDS, ten glycerol) for protein analysis, in RLT buffer (Qiagen) for RNA extraction, or as described in  for polysome analysis. Sucrose density gradient fractionation and polysome analysis was performed as described in .RNA ExtractionRNA in the inputs (50 ul) as well as the pellets was obtained employing the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen) in accordance with manufacturer’s directions. Total RNA was quantified employing a NanoDrop 1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific) and its high quality was assessed making use of an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer with all the RNA 6000 Nano kit (Agilent Technologies).Western Blot AnalysisProtein lysates have been quantified making use of the BCA protein assay (Pierce). Right after protein determination, 20 ug of protein have been separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto nitrocellulosePLOS A single | www.plosone.orgRegulation of Sertoli and Leydig Cell Transcriptsmembranes. Soon after transfer, membranes had been blocked with five milk in TBST (Tris-buffered saline containing 0.1 Tween-20) and incubated overnight using the following primary antibodies: anti-Aquaporin 2 (1:1000; Novus), anti-phospho-S6 (1:2000; Cell Signaling Technologies) and anti-Beta Actin (1:50,000; SigmaAldrich). Immediately after incubation with secondary antibodies (1:10,000; Jackson ImmunoResearch), membranes PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356390 have been washed in TBST and created making use of an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) detection program (Pierce).Immunohistochemistry (IHC)Mice have been perfused transcardially with Bouin fixative or PBS containing four paraformaldehyde and testes had been removed, postfixed overnight and cryoprotected with 30 sucrose in PBS. For cryosectioning, testes had been frozen for 5 min in dry ice and sectioned applying a freezing microtome (Leica). Frozen sections we.