1, Funing Meng2, Shengwei Zhu2 Zhi LiuSET (Su(var), E(z), and

1, Funing Meng2, Shengwei Zhu2 Zhi LiuSET (Su(var), E(z), and Trithorax) domain-containing proteins play an important role in plant development and stress responses through modifying lysine methylation status of histone. Gossypium raimondii may be the putative contributor of the D-subgenome of economical crops allotetraploid G. hirsutum and G. barbadense and therefore can potentially provide resistance genes. In this study, we identified 52 SET domain-containing genes from G. raimondii genome. Based on buy GW0742 conserved sequences, these genes are grouped into seven classes and are predicted to catalyze the methylation of different substrates: GrKMT1 for H3K9me, GrKMT2 and GrKMT7 for H3K4me, GrKMT3 for H3K36me, GrKMT6 for H3K27me, but GrRBCMT and GrS-ET for nonhistones substrate-specific methylation. Seven pairs of GrKMT and GrRBCMT homologous genes are found to be duplicated, possibly one originating from tandem duplication and five from a large scale or whole genome duplication event. The gene structure, domain organization and expression patterns analyses suggest that these genes’ functions are diversified. A few of GrKMTs and GrRBCMTs, especially for GrKMT1A;1a, GrKMT3;3 and GrKMT6B;1 were affected by high temperature (HT) stress, demonstrating dramatically changed expression patterns. The characterization of SET domain-containing genes in G. raimondii provides useful clues for further revealing epigenetic regulation under HT and function diversification during evolution. Epigenetics is the study of inheritable genetic changes without a change in DNA sequence1. Molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation mainly consist of DNA methylation, chromatin/histone modifications and small non-coding RNAs etc2. Being one of most important epigenetic modifications, histone modification occurs primarily on lysines and arginines, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, methylation and others3. Among these covalent modifications, histone methylation and demethylation are catalyzed by Histone Lysine Methyltransferases (KMTs ) and Histone Lysine Demethylases (KDMs ), respectively. KMTs commonly include an evolutionarily conserved SET (Su(var), E(z), and Trithorax) domain, which carries enzyme catalytic activity for catalyzing mono-, di-, or tri- methylation on lysine4. The SET domain typically constitutes a knot-like structure formed by about 130?50 amino acids, which contributes to order GW610742 enzymatic activity of lysine methylation5. To date, a number of SET domain-containing proteins have been discovered and analyzed in the released genomic sequences of model plants. Baumbusch et al. early reported that Arabidopsis thaliana had at least 29 active genes encoding SET domain-containing proteins6, and Springer et al. found 32 Arabidopsis SET proteins, which were divided into five classes and 19 orthology groups7, and then Ng et al. detected 7 classes, 46 Arabidopsis SET proteins8. Based on different substrate specificities, Huang et al. have recently proposed a new and rational nomenclature, in which plant SET domain-containing proteins were grouped into six distinct classes: KMT1 for H3K9, KMT2 for H3K4, KMT3 for H3K36, KMT6 for H3K27 and KMT7 for H3K4, while S-ETs contain an interrupted SET domain and are likely involved in the methylation of nonhistone proteins9. Besides the above major KMT classes, rubisco methyltransferase (RBCMT) family proteins are also identified as specificCollege of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural Universi.1, Funing Meng2, Shengwei Zhu2 Zhi LiuSET (Su(var), E(z), and Trithorax) domain-containing proteins play an important role in plant development and stress responses through modifying lysine methylation status of histone. Gossypium raimondii may be the putative contributor of the D-subgenome of economical crops allotetraploid G. hirsutum and G. barbadense and therefore can potentially provide resistance genes. In this study, we identified 52 SET domain-containing genes from G. raimondii genome. Based on conserved sequences, these genes are grouped into seven classes and are predicted to catalyze the methylation of different substrates: GrKMT1 for H3K9me, GrKMT2 and GrKMT7 for H3K4me, GrKMT3 for H3K36me, GrKMT6 for H3K27me, but GrRBCMT and GrS-ET for nonhistones substrate-specific methylation. Seven pairs of GrKMT and GrRBCMT homologous genes are found to be duplicated, possibly one originating from tandem duplication and five from a large scale or whole genome duplication event. The gene structure, domain organization and expression patterns analyses suggest that these genes’ functions are diversified. A few of GrKMTs and GrRBCMTs, especially for GrKMT1A;1a, GrKMT3;3 and GrKMT6B;1 were affected by high temperature (HT) stress, demonstrating dramatically changed expression patterns. The characterization of SET domain-containing genes in G. raimondii provides useful clues for further revealing epigenetic regulation under HT and function diversification during evolution. Epigenetics is the study of inheritable genetic changes without a change in DNA sequence1. Molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation mainly consist of DNA methylation, chromatin/histone modifications and small non-coding RNAs etc2. Being one of most important epigenetic modifications, histone modification occurs primarily on lysines and arginines, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, methylation and others3. Among these covalent modifications, histone methylation and demethylation are catalyzed by Histone Lysine Methyltransferases (KMTs ) and Histone Lysine Demethylases (KDMs ), respectively. KMTs commonly include an evolutionarily conserved SET (Su(var), E(z), and Trithorax) domain, which carries enzyme catalytic activity for catalyzing mono-, di-, or tri- methylation on lysine4. The SET domain typically constitutes a knot-like structure formed by about 130?50 amino acids, which contributes to enzymatic activity of lysine methylation5. To date, a number of SET domain-containing proteins have been discovered and analyzed in the released genomic sequences of model plants. Baumbusch et al. early reported that Arabidopsis thaliana had at least 29 active genes encoding SET domain-containing proteins6, and Springer et al. found 32 Arabidopsis SET proteins, which were divided into five classes and 19 orthology groups7, and then Ng et al. detected 7 classes, 46 Arabidopsis SET proteins8. Based on different substrate specificities, Huang et al. have recently proposed a new and rational nomenclature, in which plant SET domain-containing proteins were grouped into six distinct classes: KMT1 for H3K9, KMT2 for H3K4, KMT3 for H3K36, KMT6 for H3K27 and KMT7 for H3K4, while S-ETs contain an interrupted SET domain and are likely involved in the methylation of nonhistone proteins9. Besides the above major KMT classes, rubisco methyltransferase (RBCMT) family proteins are also identified as specificCollege of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural Universi.