Onsisting of all four treatment elements) has been demonstrated in multiple

Onsisting of all four treatment elements) has been demonstrated in multiple RCTs, including trials conducted by independent research groups and in diverse patient populations. Because these studies been reviewed in depth elsewhere (17, 18), we will discuss them only briefly here. Several trails have compared twelve months of DBT to treatment as usual. However, the quality of this control condition has varied considerably from minimal (e.g., bimonthly clinical management; 19) to intensive (e.g., weekly individual and group psychotherapy, and medication management; 20). Despite this variability in the TAU condition, findings suggest that DBT yields significantly greater reductions in the frequency of parasuicidal behavior and anger and higher rates of treatment retention (19, 20, 21, 22, 23). In addition, findings suggest that, relative to TAU, DBT is associated with fewer emergency room contacts and inpatient days, decreased depression and impulsiveness, and greater NIK333 cost social and global adjustment; however, these results have not been replicated across studies. While these findings are certainly promising, they raise the question of whether treatment effects are specific to DBT, or whether these outcomes can be matched by other active treatment conditions delivered by well-trained clinicians. In one study, Turner and colleagues (24) randomized outpatients with BPD to either client centered therapy (CCT; n = 12) or modified DBT, which consisted of only individual treatment (with individual skills training) and included a psychodynamic case conceptualization (n = 12). At the end of treatment, clients in DBT had significantly fewer suicide attempts, emergency room visits and inpatient days, decreased impulsiveness, depression and anger, and greater global adjustment suggesting that the effects of DBT is superior to an active but unstructured control treatment across numerous domains of functioning. Similarly, Linehan and colleagues (25) assigned outpatients with BPD to receive a year of either community treatment by experts (CTBE; n = 51) or full-package DBT (n = 52), with treatments matched for many non-specific clinician characteristics (e.g., therapist sex, training, supervision, allegiance to treatment). DBT was associated with fewer suicide attempts, fewer emergency contacts and inpatient days, and superior treatment retention, suggesting that DBT’s effects cannot be explained by general therapy factors. Overall, there is reliable evidence that DBT is superior to active, non-behavioral treatments in terms of incidence of suicide attempts, and utilization of emergency and inpatient psychiatric services; however, there is inconsistent evidence that DBT enhances emotional variables, social adjustment or global functioning. Most recently, there have been two RCTs that compare the effectiveness of DBT to other empirically supported interventions for BPD. For example, Clarkin and colleagues (26) randomized outpatients with BPD to receive a year of biweeky transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP; n = 23), a year of full-package DBT (n = 17) or a year of weekly psychodynamic supportive therapy (n = 21). In addition, all clients received medication as necessary. Over the course of treatment, patients in all conditions showed Peretinoin site significant improvements in depression, anxiety, social adjustment and global functioning. Both TFP and DBT produced significant reductions in suicidality, whereas supportive treatment did not; on the other hand, TFP and suppo.Onsisting of all four treatment elements) has been demonstrated in multiple RCTs, including trials conducted by independent research groups and in diverse patient populations. Because these studies been reviewed in depth elsewhere (17, 18), we will discuss them only briefly here. Several trails have compared twelve months of DBT to treatment as usual. However, the quality of this control condition has varied considerably from minimal (e.g., bimonthly clinical management; 19) to intensive (e.g., weekly individual and group psychotherapy, and medication management; 20). Despite this variability in the TAU condition, findings suggest that DBT yields significantly greater reductions in the frequency of parasuicidal behavior and anger and higher rates of treatment retention (19, 20, 21, 22, 23). In addition, findings suggest that, relative to TAU, DBT is associated with fewer emergency room contacts and inpatient days, decreased depression and impulsiveness, and greater social and global adjustment; however, these results have not been replicated across studies. While these findings are certainly promising, they raise the question of whether treatment effects are specific to DBT, or whether these outcomes can be matched by other active treatment conditions delivered by well-trained clinicians. In one study, Turner and colleagues (24) randomized outpatients with BPD to either client centered therapy (CCT; n = 12) or modified DBT, which consisted of only individual treatment (with individual skills training) and included a psychodynamic case conceptualization (n = 12). At the end of treatment, clients in DBT had significantly fewer suicide attempts, emergency room visits and inpatient days, decreased impulsiveness, depression and anger, and greater global adjustment suggesting that the effects of DBT is superior to an active but unstructured control treatment across numerous domains of functioning. Similarly, Linehan and colleagues (25) assigned outpatients with BPD to receive a year of either community treatment by experts (CTBE; n = 51) or full-package DBT (n = 52), with treatments matched for many non-specific clinician characteristics (e.g., therapist sex, training, supervision, allegiance to treatment). DBT was associated with fewer suicide attempts, fewer emergency contacts and inpatient days, and superior treatment retention, suggesting that DBT’s effects cannot be explained by general therapy factors. Overall, there is reliable evidence that DBT is superior to active, non-behavioral treatments in terms of incidence of suicide attempts, and utilization of emergency and inpatient psychiatric services; however, there is inconsistent evidence that DBT enhances emotional variables, social adjustment or global functioning. Most recently, there have been two RCTs that compare the effectiveness of DBT to other empirically supported interventions for BPD. For example, Clarkin and colleagues (26) randomized outpatients with BPD to receive a year of biweeky transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP; n = 23), a year of full-package DBT (n = 17) or a year of weekly psychodynamic supportive therapy (n = 21). In addition, all clients received medication as necessary. Over the course of treatment, patients in all conditions showed significant improvements in depression, anxiety, social adjustment and global functioning. Both TFP and DBT produced significant reductions in suicidality, whereas supportive treatment did not; on the other hand, TFP and suppo.