Rtive treatment reduced anger, but DBT did not. Furthermore, only TFP

Rtive treatment reduced anger, but DBT did not. Furthermore, only TFP was associated with significant reductions in irritability, physical assault and verbal aggression. Findings indicate that all three treatments are effective in reducing symptoms and dysfunction associated with BPD. Consistent with previous findings, DBT did have a positive effect on suicide-related outcomes. However, the most BMS-791325 web widespread gains were observed among clients in TFP. In another study, McMain and colleagues (27) compared DBT (n = 90) to general psychiatric management (n = 90), which was based on the APA recommendations, and consisted of psychodynamic psychotherapy and symptom-targeted medication management. From the baseline assessment to the end of treatment, both groups showed significant improvements in almost every outcome assessedPsychiatr Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 1.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptMatusiewicz et al.Page(e.g., frequency of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, medical severity of these behaviors, emergency room visits and inpatient days, depression, anger, BPD symptom severity and overall symptom distress). However, contrary to predictions, the groups did not differ significantly on any treatment outcome, suggesting that DBT and general psychiatric management are equally effective in addressing symptoms and impairment associated with BPD. Taken together, findings from RCTs for DBT provide considerable support for its effectiveness as a treatment for BPD across many symptom domains. There is consistent evidence that DBT reduces suicidal parasuicidal behavior, decreases the medical risk associated with these behaviors, and produces fewer emergency visits and inpatient days. There is also evidence that DBT reduces affective symptoms of BPD (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger), and that it enhances global adjustment. It is also noteworthy that the effectiveness of DBT has been demonstrated in a range of real-world clinical settings, including a veteran’s affairs hospital (23), community mental health centers (28, 29), a university training clinic (30), and among clinicians in private practice (24, 26). Moreover, DBT has been found to be superior to treatment as usual, and generally equivalent to other active, structured, theoretically-sound outpatient treatments. Whereas standard DBT was developed to be a long-term outpatient treatment, there have been efforts to adapt DBT for use inpatients with BPD. In an initial trial, Barley and colleagues (31) compared frequency of non-suicidal self-injury and overdose before and after a long-term inpatient ward transitioned to DBT. As an additional control, they compared these changes to another general psychotherapy ward. They reported significant reductions in the incidence of non-suicidal self-injury, and parasuicidal behavior decreased on the DBT unit, whereas no decrease was observed on the comparison unit. Bohus and colleagues (32, 33) found similarly promising GGTI298 web outcomes following three-month inpatient DBT-based treatment, designed to jumpstart outpatient DBT. Inpatient DBT consisted of psychoeducation about BPD and mechanisms of treatment, skills training, and contingency management for parasuicidal behavior. In a pilot study, 24 female inpatients were assessed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Significant improvements were observed in frequency of parasuicidal behavior, depression, anxiety, stress an.Rtive treatment reduced anger, but DBT did not. Furthermore, only TFP was associated with significant reductions in irritability, physical assault and verbal aggression. Findings indicate that all three treatments are effective in reducing symptoms and dysfunction associated with BPD. Consistent with previous findings, DBT did have a positive effect on suicide-related outcomes. However, the most widespread gains were observed among clients in TFP. In another study, McMain and colleagues (27) compared DBT (n = 90) to general psychiatric management (n = 90), which was based on the APA recommendations, and consisted of psychodynamic psychotherapy and symptom-targeted medication management. From the baseline assessment to the end of treatment, both groups showed significant improvements in almost every outcome assessedPsychiatr Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 1.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptMatusiewicz et al.Page(e.g., frequency of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, medical severity of these behaviors, emergency room visits and inpatient days, depression, anger, BPD symptom severity and overall symptom distress). However, contrary to predictions, the groups did not differ significantly on any treatment outcome, suggesting that DBT and general psychiatric management are equally effective in addressing symptoms and impairment associated with BPD. Taken together, findings from RCTs for DBT provide considerable support for its effectiveness as a treatment for BPD across many symptom domains. There is consistent evidence that DBT reduces suicidal parasuicidal behavior, decreases the medical risk associated with these behaviors, and produces fewer emergency visits and inpatient days. There is also evidence that DBT reduces affective symptoms of BPD (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger), and that it enhances global adjustment. It is also noteworthy that the effectiveness of DBT has been demonstrated in a range of real-world clinical settings, including a veteran’s affairs hospital (23), community mental health centers (28, 29), a university training clinic (30), and among clinicians in private practice (24, 26). Moreover, DBT has been found to be superior to treatment as usual, and generally equivalent to other active, structured, theoretically-sound outpatient treatments. Whereas standard DBT was developed to be a long-term outpatient treatment, there have been efforts to adapt DBT for use inpatients with BPD. In an initial trial, Barley and colleagues (31) compared frequency of non-suicidal self-injury and overdose before and after a long-term inpatient ward transitioned to DBT. As an additional control, they compared these changes to another general psychotherapy ward. They reported significant reductions in the incidence of non-suicidal self-injury, and parasuicidal behavior decreased on the DBT unit, whereas no decrease was observed on the comparison unit. Bohus and colleagues (32, 33) found similarly promising outcomes following three-month inpatient DBT-based treatment, designed to jumpstart outpatient DBT. Inpatient DBT consisted of psychoeducation about BPD and mechanisms of treatment, skills training, and contingency management for parasuicidal behavior. In a pilot study, 24 female inpatients were assessed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Significant improvements were observed in frequency of parasuicidal behavior, depression, anxiety, stress an.