Highest in carbohydrate. This is due to the very high intake

Highest in carbohydrate. This is due to the very high intake of phytonutrient-rich yet caloriepoor orange-yellow-purple root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables (Willcox et al. 2004; 2009). However, the traditional Okinawan diet has undergone extensive post-war change, most notably in terms of an increase in fat intake and a decrease in carbohydrate quality. The sweet potato has largely been replaced by white rice, bread, and noodles, as the main sources of carbohydrate. Despite the large increase in fat consumption in Okinawa since the 1950’s, fat intake for elders in Okinawa is still comparable to that of the DASH diet (at approximately 27 of total daily energy intake) and lower than that of the traditional Mediterranean diet (42 ) (Kromhout et al. 1989; Sacks et al. 2001). Saturated fat remains less than 10 of total energy intake (around 7 versus 6 in DASH and 9 in Mediterranean), consistent with NCEP and Unified Dietary recommendations. Despite a reduction of dietary carbohydrate, this macronutrient remains the highest in Okinawa versus other healthy diets (58 versus a low of 42 for Mediterranean) and protein intake, at 16 , falls between the lower Mediterranean (13 ) intake and the higher Portfolio (20 ) intake. Overall, the important shared features of the order 1-Deoxynojirimycin aforementioned healthy dietary patterns include the following: Relatively high consumption of unrefined, low GI carbohydrates: principally vegetables, legumes, and fruits; Monocrotaline web Moderate fish and marine food consumption Lower intake of meat with emphasis on lean meats Liberal use of medicinal plants, herbs, spices or oils Regular tea consumption and moderate alcohol consumption.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptThese dietary patterns result in:Mech Ageing Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 24.Willcox et al.PageHealthy fat profile (higher in mono and polyunsaturated fats and lower in saturated fat; relatively high in omega-3 fat); Higher phytonutrient intake; Lower caloric density and intake; Less inflammation; Potential modulation of biological pathways linked to aging.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptThese shared features have contributed to the lower rates of cardiovascular disease (CHD, stroke), some cancers, diabetes and several other age-associated chronic diseases witnessed in the long-living Okinawan elders (Suzuki et al. 2001; Willcox et al. 2007; 2009; Sho 2001). Indeed, interventional studies of the Okinawan diet have shown improvements in several risk factors that reflect odds for healthy aging, particular risk factors for cardiovascular disease.. For example, the Okinawan diet has been shown to be able to increase potassium excretion in normotensive healthy young women (Tuekpe et al. 2006) as well as raise levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (Mano et al. 2007). Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are playing an increasingly important role as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and may improve risk stratification, as well as offer novel tools for monitoring disease progression and response to therapy (Grisar et al. 2011). While the Okinawan elders have maintained a relatively healthy version of the Okinawan diet, dietary change in the post-war period has been mostly negative among younger Okinawans. Less healthy food choices in post-war generations has resulted in an increase in calories and a less nutritious diet; wh.Highest in carbohydrate. This is due to the very high intake of phytonutrient-rich yet caloriepoor orange-yellow-purple root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables (Willcox et al. 2004; 2009). However, the traditional Okinawan diet has undergone extensive post-war change, most notably in terms of an increase in fat intake and a decrease in carbohydrate quality. The sweet potato has largely been replaced by white rice, bread, and noodles, as the main sources of carbohydrate. Despite the large increase in fat consumption in Okinawa since the 1950’s, fat intake for elders in Okinawa is still comparable to that of the DASH diet (at approximately 27 of total daily energy intake) and lower than that of the traditional Mediterranean diet (42 ) (Kromhout et al. 1989; Sacks et al. 2001). Saturated fat remains less than 10 of total energy intake (around 7 versus 6 in DASH and 9 in Mediterranean), consistent with NCEP and Unified Dietary recommendations. Despite a reduction of dietary carbohydrate, this macronutrient remains the highest in Okinawa versus other healthy diets (58 versus a low of 42 for Mediterranean) and protein intake, at 16 , falls between the lower Mediterranean (13 ) intake and the higher Portfolio (20 ) intake. Overall, the important shared features of the aforementioned healthy dietary patterns include the following: Relatively high consumption of unrefined, low GI carbohydrates: principally vegetables, legumes, and fruits; Moderate fish and marine food consumption Lower intake of meat with emphasis on lean meats Liberal use of medicinal plants, herbs, spices or oils Regular tea consumption and moderate alcohol consumption.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptThese dietary patterns result in:Mech Ageing Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 24.Willcox et al.PageHealthy fat profile (higher in mono and polyunsaturated fats and lower in saturated fat; relatively high in omega-3 fat); Higher phytonutrient intake; Lower caloric density and intake; Less inflammation; Potential modulation of biological pathways linked to aging.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptThese shared features have contributed to the lower rates of cardiovascular disease (CHD, stroke), some cancers, diabetes and several other age-associated chronic diseases witnessed in the long-living Okinawan elders (Suzuki et al. 2001; Willcox et al. 2007; 2009; Sho 2001). Indeed, interventional studies of the Okinawan diet have shown improvements in several risk factors that reflect odds for healthy aging, particular risk factors for cardiovascular disease.. For example, the Okinawan diet has been shown to be able to increase potassium excretion in normotensive healthy young women (Tuekpe et al. 2006) as well as raise levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (Mano et al. 2007). Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are playing an increasingly important role as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and may improve risk stratification, as well as offer novel tools for monitoring disease progression and response to therapy (Grisar et al. 2011). While the Okinawan elders have maintained a relatively healthy version of the Okinawan diet, dietary change in the post-war period has been mostly negative among younger Okinawans. Less healthy food choices in post-war generations has resulted in an increase in calories and a less nutritious diet; wh.